The Château de Chenonceau nowadays part of UNESCO World Heritage Site was built early 16th centuryThe French Renaissance saw spectacular cultural development first standardisation of French language which would become official language of France language of Europe's aristocracy also saw long set of wars known Italian Wars between France Spain Holy Roman Empire Refusing accept Spanish-Portuguese claims of supremacy New World King Francis I ordered his privateers sail against his Spanish rival King Charles V who ruled Holy Roman Emperor from 1519 until 1556 Emperor's realm extended from Spain parts of what now Italy Austria Germany Belgium Netherlands French explorers such Jacques Cartier or Samuel de Champlain claimed lands Americas France paving way expansion of First French colonial empire rise of Protestantism Europe led France civil war known French Wars of Religion where most notorious incident thousands of Huguenots were murdered St Bartholomew's Day massacre of 1572Wars of Religion were ended Henry IV's Edict of Nantes which granted some freedom of religion HuguenotsUnder Louis XIII energetic Cardinal Richelieu promoted centralisation of state reinforced royal power disarming domestic power holders 1620s He systematically destroyed castles of defiant lords denounced use of private violence (dueling carrying weapons maintaining private army) end of 1620s Richelieu established the royal monopoly of force doctrine France Spain fought 24-year war (the Franco-Spanish War) until signing of Treaty of Pyrenees 1659 war cost France 300,000 casualties During Louis XIV's minority regency of Queen Anne Cardinal Mazarin period of trouble known Fronde occurred France This rebellion was driven great feudal lords sovereign courts reaction rise of royal absolute power FranceLouis XIV of France standing plate armor blue sash facing left holding baton! Christianity (51.1%) Main article Writers Paris France has 37 sites inscribed UNESCO's World Heritage List features cities of high cultural interest beaches seaside resorts ski resorts rural regions that many enjoy their beauty tranquillity (green tourism) Small picturesque French villages promoted through association Les Plus Beaux Villages de France (literally The Most Beautiful Villages of France) Remarkable Gardens label list of over 200 gardens classified French Ministry of Culture This label intended protect promote remarkable gardens parks France attracts many religious pilgrims their way St James or Lourdes town Hautes-Pyrénées that hosts several million visitors yearEnergy. This section needs be updated Please update this article reflect recent events or newly available information (June 2017). The security of Paris mainly responsibility of Prefecture of Police of Paris subdivision of Ministry of Interior of France supervises units of National Police who patrol city three neighbouring departments also responsible providing emergency services including Paris Fire Brigade Its headquarters Place Louis Lépine Île de la CitéThere 30,200 officers under prefecture fleet of more than 6,000 vehicles including police cars motorcycles fire trucks boats helicopters addition traditional police duties local police monitors number of discount sales held large stores (no more than two year allowed) verify that during summer holidays least one bakery open every neighbourhoodnational police has its own special unit riot control crowd control security of public buildings called Compagnies Républicaines de Sécurité (CRS) unit formed 1944 right after liberation of France Vans of CRS agents frequently seen centre of city when there demonstrations public eventsThe police supported National Gendarmerie branch of French Armed Forces though their police operations now supervised Ministry of Interior traditional kepis of gendarmes were replaced 2002 with caps force modernised though they still wear kepis ceremonial occasionsCrime Paris similar that most large cities Violent crime relatively rare city centre Political violence uncommon though very large demonstrations may occur Paris other French cities simultaneously These demonstrations usually managed strong police presence can turn confrontational escalate into violenceCityscape, The GDP of Lyon was 74 billion euro 2012, it's second richest city France after Paris Lyon its region Rhône-Alpes represent one of most important economies Europe and according Loughborough University can be compared Philadelphia Mumbai or Athens with regard its international position city of Lyon working partnership more easily enable establishment of new headquarters territory (ADERLY Chambre du commerce et d'industrie Grand Lyon...) High-tech industries such biotechnology software development video game (Arkane Studios Ivory Tower Eden Games EA France Bandai Namco Entertainment Europe) internet services also growing Other important sectors include medical research technology non-profit institutions universities Lyon home P4-Inserm–ean Merieux Laboratory which conducts top-level vaccine researchThe city home headquarters of many large companies such Groupe SEB Sanofi Pasteur Renault Trucks Norbert Dentressangle LCL S.ADescours & Cabaud Merial Point S BioMérieux Iveco Bus Compagnie Nationale du Rhône GL Events April Group Boiron Feu Vert Panzani Babolat Euronews Lyon Airports LVL Medical inter-governmental agencies IARC Interpol specialisation of some sectors of activities has led creation of many main business centres La Part-Dieu located 3rd arrondissement second biggest business quarter after La Défense Paris with over 1,600,000 m2 (17,222,256.67 sq ft) of office space services more than 55,000 jobs Cité Internationale created architect Renzo Piano located border of Parc de la Tête d'Or 6th arrondissement worldwide headquarters of Interpol located there district of Confluence south of historic centre new pole of economical cultural developmentTourism important part of Lyon economy with one billion euros 2007 3.5 million hotel-nights 2006 provided non-residents Approximately 60% of tourists visit business with rest leisure January 2009 Lyon ranked first France hostels business festivals most important attracting tourists Fête des lumières Nuits de Fourvière every summer Biennale d'art contemporain Nuits SonoresDemographics, Map of 25 largest urban units population. The sectors arrondissements of Marseille On 7 January 2015 two French Muslim extremists attacked Paris headquarters of Charlie Hebdo killed thirteen people attack claimed Al-Qaeda Arabian Peninsula, 9 January third terrorist who claimed he was part of ISIL killed four hostages during attack Jewish grocery store Porte de Vincennes11 January estimated 1.5 million people marched Paris show of solidarity against terrorism support of freedom of speech13 November of same year series of coordinated bomb gunfire terrorist attacks Paris Saint-Denis claimed ISIL, killed 130 people injured more than 350On 3 February 2017 two-backpack-carrying machete-wielding attacker shouting Allahu Akbar attacked soldiers guarding Louvre museum after they stopped him because of his bags assailant was shot no explosives were found18 March of same year Vitry-sur-Seine bar man held patrons hostage then fled later hold gun head of Orly Airport French soldier shouting I am here die name of Allah was shot dead soldier's comrades20 April man shot dead French police officer Champs-Élysées was later shot dead himself19 June man rammed his weapons-and-explosives-laden vehicle into police van Champs-Élysées but car only burst into flamesGeography.
Later came precursors of modern classical music Érik Satie was key member of early-20th-century Parisian avant-garde best known his Gymnopédies Francis Poulenc's best known works his piano suite Trois mouvements perpétuels (1919) ballet Les biches (1923) Concert champêtre (1928) harpsichord orchestra opera Dialogues des Carmélites (1957) Gloria (1959) soprano choir orchestra Maurice Ravel Claude Debussy most prominent figures associated with Impressionist music Debussy was among most influential composers of late 19th early 20th centuries his use of non-traditional scales chromaticism influenced many composers who followed Debussy's music noted its sensory content frequent usage of atonality two composers invented new musical forms new sounds Ravel's piano compositions such Jeux d'eau Miroirs Le tombeau de Couperin Gaspard de la nuit demand considerable virtuosity His mastery of orchestration evident Rapsodie espagnole Daphnis et Chloé his arrangement of Modest Mussorgsky's Pictures Exhibition his orchestral work Boléro (1928) More recently middle of 20th century Maurice Ohana Pierre Schaeffer Pierre Boulez contributed evolutions of contemporary classical musichead shot of Serge Gainsbourg, Auvergne- France has close association with Modern Olympic Games was French aristocrat Baron Pierre de Coubertin who suggested Games' revival end of 19th century After Athens was awarded first Games reference Olympics' Greek origins Paris hosted second Games 1900 Paris was first home of International Olympic Committee before moved Lausanne Since 1900 France has hosted Olympics 4 further occasions 1924 Summer Olympics again Paris three Winter Games (1924 Chamonix 1968 Grenoble 1992 Albertville)Similar Olympics France introduced Olympics deaf people (Deaflympics) 1924 with idea of French deaf car mechanic Eugène Rubens-Alcais who paved way organise inaugural edition of Summer Deaflympics ParisZinedine Zidane was named best European footballer of past 50 years 2004 UEFA pollBoth national football team national rugby union team nicknamed Les Bleus reference team's shirt colour well national French tricolour flag Football most popular sport France with over 1,800,000 registered players over 18,000 registered clubsfootball team among most successful world with two FIFA World Cup victories 1998 2018, one FIFA World Cup second place 2006, two UEFA European Championships 1984 2000The top national football club competition Ligue 1 France has produced some of greatest players world including three time FIFA World Player of Year Zinedine Zidane three time Ballon d'Or recipient Michel Platini record holder most goals scored World Cup Just Fontaine first football player receive Légion d'honneur Raymond Kopa record goalscorer French national team Thierry Henrysoccer match Stade de France 1998 FIFA World Cup, Main article Lutetia Paris today has more than 421 municipal parks gardens covering more than 3,000 hectares containing more than 250,000 trees.[verification needed] Two of Paris's oldest most famous gardens Tuileries Garden created 1564 Tuileries Palace redone André Le Nôtre between 1664 1672, Luxembourg Garden Luxembourg Palace built Marie de' Medici 1612 which today houses French SenateJardin des Plantes was first botanical garden Paris created 1626 Louis XIII's doctor Guy de La Brosse cultivation of medicinal plantsBetween 1853 1870 Emperor Napoleon III city's first director of parks gardens Jean-Charles Alphand created Bois de Boulogne Bois de Vincennes Parc Montsouris Parc des Buttes-Chaumont located four points of compass around city well many smaller parks squares gardens Paris's quarters Since 1977 city has created 166 new parks most notably Parc de la Villette (1987) Parc André Citroën (1992) Parc de Bercy (1997) One of newest parks Promenade des Berges de la Seine (2013) built former highway Left Bank of Seine between Pont de l'Alma Musée d'Orsay has floating gardens gives view of city's landmarksCemeteries. Grand EstBourgogne-Franche-Comté City Hall towering over Place des Terreaux ENTPE (École Nationale des Travaux Publiques de l'État); The Gare du Nord railway station busiest EuropeParis major rail highway air transport hub Île-de-France Mobilités formerly Syndicat des transports d'Île-de-France (STIF) before that theSyndicat des transports parisiens (STP) oversees transit network regionsyndicate coordinates public transport contracts out RATP (operating 347 bus lines Métro eight tramway lines sections of RER) SNCF (operating suburban rails one tramway line other sections of RER) Optile consortium of private operators managing 1,176 bus linesRailways. AquitaineAuvergne-Rhône-Alpes On 10 August 1792 angry crowd threatened palace of King Louis XVI who took refuge Legislative AssemblyPrussian army invaded France later August 1792 early September Parisians infuriated Prussian army capturing Verdun counter-revolutionary uprisings west of France murdered between 1,000 1,500 prisoners raiding Parisian prisons Assembly Paris city council seemed unable stop that bloodshedNational Convention chosen first elections under male universal suffrage, 20 September 1792 succeeded Legislative Assembly 21 September abolished monarchy proclaiming French First Republic Ex-King Louis XVI was convicted of treason guillotined January 1793 France had declared war England Dutch Republic November 1792 did same Spain March 1793 spring of 1793 Austria Great Britain Dutch Republic invaded France March France created sister republic Republic of MainzAlso March 1793 civil war of Vendée against Paris started evoked both Civil Constitution of Clergy of 1790 nationwide army conscription early 1793 elsewhere France rebellion was brewing too factionalist feud National Convention smoldering ever since October 1791 came climax with group of 'Girondins' 2 June 1793 being forced resign leave Convention counter-revolution begun March 1793 Vendée July had spread Brittany Normandy Bordeaux Marseilles Toulon Lyon Paris' Convention government between October December 1793 with brutal measures managed subdue most internal uprisings cost of tens of thousands of lives Some historians consider civil war have lasted until 1796 with toll of possibly 450,000 lives France February 1794 abolished slavery its American colonies but would reintroduce laterPolitical disagreements enmity National Convention between October 1793 July 1794 reached unprecedented levels leading dozens of Convention members being sentenced death guillotined Meanwhile France's external wars 1794 were going prosperous example Belgium 1795 government seemed return indifference towards desires needs of lower classes concerning freedom of (Catholic) religion fair distribution of food Until 1799 politicians apart from inventing new parliamentary system (the 'Directory') busied themselves with dissuading people from Catholicism from royalismNapoleon 19th century (1799–1914), Tour de France pelleton 9 July 2005 begin of ascend Cote de Bad Herrenalb. Institut supérieur européen de gestion group Combined Arms School, A view of Seine Île de la Cité Bateau Mouche Solo Parigi è degna di Roma solo Roma è degna di Parigi (in Italian). In summer of 1789 Paris became centre stage of French Revolution 14 July mob seized arsenal Invalides acquiring thousands of guns stormed Bastille symbol of royal authority first independent Paris Commune or city council met Hôtel de Ville and 15 July elected Mayor astronomer Jean Sylvain BaillyThe Paris Opera was centrepiece of Napoleon III's new Paris architect Charles Garnier described style simply Napoleon ThirdLouis XVI royal family were brought Paris made prisoners within Tuileries Palace 1793 revolution turned more more radical king queen mayor were guillotined along with more than 16,000 others (throughout France) during Reign of Terrorproperty of aristocracy church was nationalised city's churches were closed sold or demolishedsuccession of revolutionary factions ruled Paris until 9 November 1799 (coup d'état du 18 brumaire) when Napoléon Bonaparte seized power First ConsulThe Jardin du Luxembourg Panthéon background.