Pieds paquets Lyon home football club Olympique Lyonnais (OL) whose men's team plays Ligue 1 has won championship of that competition seven times all consecutively from 2002 2008) OL played until December 2015 43,000-seat Stade de Gerland which also hosted matches of 1998 FIFA World Cup Since 2016 team has played Parc Olympique Lyonnais 59,000-seat stadium located eastern suburb of Décines-Charpieu OL operates women's team Olympique Lyonnais Féminin which competes dominates Division 1 Féminine They streak of 11 top-flight championships (2007–present) additionally claim four titles won original incarnation of FC Lyon women's football club that merged into OL 2004 (the current FC Lyon was founded 2009) OL women have also won UEFA Women's Champions League five times including two most recent editions 2016 2017Lyon has rugby union team Lyon OU Top 14 which moved into Stade de Gerland full-time 2017–18 addition Lyon has rugby league side called Lyon Villeurbanne that plays French rugby league championship club's home Stade Georges Lyvet VilleurbanneLyon also home Lyon Hockey Club ice hockey team that competes France's national ice hockey league Patinoire Charlemagne seat of Club des Sports de Glace de Lyon club of Olympic ice dancing champions Marina Anissina Gwendal Peizerat world champions Isabelle Delobel Olivier Shoenfelder Villeurbanne also has basketball team ASVEL that plays Astroballe arenaStreet art! France one of biggest contributors European Space Agency which conceived Ariane rocket family launched from French GuianaSince Middle Ages France has been major contributor scientific technological achievement Around beginning of 11th century Pope Sylvester II born Gerbert d'Aurillac reintroduced abacus armillary sphere introduced Arabic numerals clocks Northern Western EuropeUniversity of Paris founded mid-12th century still one of most important universities Western world 17th century mathematician René Descartes defined method acquisition of scientific knowledge while Blaise Pascal became famous his work probability fluid mechanics They were both key figures of Scientific revolution which blossomed Europe during this period Academy of Sciences was founded Louis XIV encourage protect spirit of French scientific research was forefront of scientific developments Europe 17th 18th centuries one of earliest academies of sciencesThe Age of Enlightenment was marked work of biologist Buffon chemist Lavoisier who discovered role of oxygen combustion while Diderot D'Alembert published Encyclopédie which aimed give access useful knowledge people knowledge that they can apply their everyday life With Industrial Revolution 19th century saw spectacular scientific developments France with scientists such Augustin Fresnel founder of modern optics Sadi Carnot who laid foundations of thermodynamics Louis Pasteur pioneer of microbiology Other eminent French scientists of 19th century have their names inscribed Eiffel TowerFamous French scientists of 20th century include mathematician physicist Henri Poincaré physicists Henri Becquerel Pierre Marie Curie remained famous their work radioactivity physicist Paul Langevin virologist Luc Montagnier co-discoverer of HIV AIDS Hand transplantation was developed 23 September 1998 Lyon team assembled from different countries around world including Jean-Michel Dubernard who shortly thereafter performed first successful double hand transplant Telesurgery was developed Jacques Marescaux his team 7 September 2001 across Atlantic Ocean (New-York-Strasbourg Lindbergh Operation)face transplant was first done 27 November 2005 Dr Bernard DevauchelleTop view of ring of European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. Marseille second-largest city of France main city of historical province of Provence today capital of department of Bouches-du-Rhône region of Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur located France's south coast covering area of 241 km2 (93 sq mi) had population of 852,516 2012 Its metropolitan area which covers 3,173 km2 (1,225 sq mi) third-largest France after Paris Lyon with population of 1,831,500 of 2010Known ancient Greeks Romans Massalia (Greek Μασσαλία Massalía), Marseille was important European trading centre remains main commercial port of French Republic Marseille now France's largest city Mediterranean coast largest port commerce freight cruise ships city was European Capital of Culture 2013 European Capital of Sport 2017 hosted matches 1998 World Cup Euro 2016 home Aix-Marseille UniversityGeography. Originally applied whole Frankish Empire name France comes from Latin Francia or country of Franks Modern France still named today Francia Italian Spanish Frankreich (Frankish Empire) German Frankrijk Dutch all of which have more or less same historical meaningThere various theories origin of name Frank Following precedents of Edward Gibbon Jacob Grimm, name of Franks has been linked with word frank (free) Englishhas been suggested that meaning of free was adopted because after conquest of Gaul only Franks were free of taxation Another theory that derived from Proto-Germanic word frankon which translates javelin or lance throwing axe of Franks was known francisca However has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use Franks not other way aroundHistory, In 1572 Lyon was scene of mass violence Catholics against Protestant Huguenots St Bartholomew's Day Massacre Two centuries later Lyon was again convulsed violence when during French Revolution citizenry rose up against National Convention supported Girondins city was besieged Revolutionary armies over two months before surrendering October 1793 Many buildings were destroyed especially around Place Bellecour while Jean-Marie Collot d'Herbois Joseph Fouché administered execution of more than 2,000 people Convention ordered that its name be changed Liberated City plaque was erected that proclaimed Lyons made war Liberty Lyons no longer existsdecade later Napoleon ordered reconstruction of all buildings demolished during this periodThe city became important industrial town during 19th century 1831 1834 canuts (silk workers) of Lyon staged two major uprisings better working conditions pay 1862 first of Lyon's extensive network of funicular railways began operationDuring World War II Lyon was centre occupying Nazi forces including Klaus Barbie infamous Butcher of Lyon But city was also stronghold of French Resistance – many secret passages known traboules enabled people escape Gestapo raids 3 September 1944 Lyon was liberated 1st Free French Division Forces Françaises de l'Intérieur city now home resistance museumGeography; Main article List of films set Marseille For almost all of its long history except few brief periods Paris was governed directly representatives of king emperor or president of France city was not granted municipal autonomy National Assembly until 1974first modern elected mayor of Paris was Jacques Chirac elected 20 March 1977 becoming city's first mayor since 1793 current mayor Anne Hidalgo socialist elected 5 April 2014The mayor of Paris elected indirectly Paris voters voters of each arrondissement elect Conseil de Paris (Council of Paris) composed of 163 members Each arrondissement has number of members depending upon its population from 10 members each of least-populated arrondissements (1st through 9th) 36 members most populated (the 15th) elected council members select mayor Sometimes candidate who receives most votes citywide not selected if other candidate has won support of majority of council members Mayor Bertrand Delanoë (2001–2014) was elected only minority of city voters but majority of council membersThe Hôtel de Ville or city hall has been same site since 1357Once elected council plays largely passive role city government primarily because meets only once month current council divided between coalition of left of 91 members including socialists communists greens extreme left 71 members centre right plus few members from smaller partiesEach of Paris' 20 arrondissements has its own town hall directly elected council (conseil d'arrondissement) which turn elects arrondissement mayorcouncil of each arrondissement composed of members of Conseil de Paris also members who serve only council of arrondissement number of deputy mayors each arrondissement varies depending upon its population There total of 20 arrondissement mayors 120 deputy mayorsThe budget of city 2018 9.5 billion Euros with expected deficit of 5.5 billion Euros 7.9 billion Euros designated city administration 1.7 billion Euros investment number of city employees increased from 40,000 2001 55,000 2018 largest part of investment budget earmarked public housing (262 million Euros) real estate (142 million Euros)Métropole du Grand Paris! Musée d'Orsay Employment economic sector Paris area (petite couronne) with population unemployment figures (2012) Institut supérieur européen de formation par l'action. International regional transport Eugène Delacroix's Liberty Leading People (1830) portrays July Revolution using stylistic views of Romanticism Since Liberty part of motto Liberté égalité fraternité French put it this painting has become primary symbol of French Republic, Chanel's headquarters Place Vendôme ParisFashion has been important industry cultural export of France since 17th century modern haute couture originated Paris 1860s Today Paris along with London Milan New York City considered one of world's fashion capitals city home or headquarters many of premier fashion houses expression Haute couture is France legally protected name guaranteeing certain quality standardsThe association of France with fashion style (French la mode) dates largely reign of Louis XIV when luxury goods industries France came increasingly under royal control French royal court became arguably arbiter of taste style Europe But France renewed its dominance of high fashion (French couture or haute couture) industry years 1860–1960 through establishing of great couturier houses such Chanel Dior Givenchy French perfume industry world leader its sector centered town of GrasseIn 1960s elitist Haute couture came under criticism from France's youth culture 1966 designer Yves Saint Laurent broke with established Haute Couture norms launching prêt-à-porter (ready wear) line expanding French fashion into mass manufacturing With greater focus marketing manufacturing new trends were established Sonia Rykiel Thierry Mugler Claude Montana Jean-Paul Gaultier Christian Lacroix 1970s 1980s 1990s saw conglomeration of many French couture houses under luxury giants multinationals such LVMHMedia, Paris its close suburbs home numerous newspapers magazines publications including Le Monde Le Figaro Libération Le Nouvel Observateur Le Canard enchaîné La Croix Pariscope Le Parisien (in Saint-Ouen) Les Échos Paris Match (Neuilly-sur-Seine) Réseaux & Télécoms Reuters France L'Officiel des Spectacles France's two most prestigious newspapers Le Monde Le Figaro centrepieces of Parisian publishing industry Agence France-Presse France's oldest one of world's oldest continually operating news agencies AFP colloquially abbreviated maintains its headquarters Paris has since 1835 France 24 television news channel owned operated French government based Paris Another news agency France Diplomatie owned operated Ministry of Foreign European Affairs pertains solely diplomatic news occurrencesThe most-viewed network France TF1 nearby Boulogne-Billancourt France 2 France 3 Canal+ France 5 M6 (Neuilly-sur-Seine) Arte D8 W9 NT1 NRJ 12 La Chaîne parlementaire France 4 BFM TV Gulli other stations located around capital Radio France France's public radio broadcaster its various channels headquartered Paris's 16th arrondissement Radio France Internationale another public broadcaster also based city Paris also holds headquarters of La Poste France's national postal carrierInternational relations. Institut National des Sciences Appliquées de Lyon (located Villeurbanne) By 1901 population of Paris had grown 2,715,000 beginning of century artists from around world including Pablo Picasso Modigliani Henri Matisse made Paris their home was birthplace of Fauvism Cubism abstract art, authors such Marcel Proust were exploring new approaches literatureDuring First World War Paris sometimes found itself front line 600 1,000 Paris taxis played small but highly important symbolic role transporting 6,000 soldiers front line First Battle of Marne city was also bombed Zeppelins shelled German long-range guns years after war known Les Années Folles Paris continued be mecca writers musicians artists from around world including Ernest Hemingway Igor Stravinsky James Joyce Josephine Baker Sidney Bechet surrealist Salvador DalíIn years after peace conference city was also home growing numbers of students activists from French colonies other Asian African countries who later became leaders of their countries such Ho Chi Minh Zhou Enlai Léopold Sédar SenghorGeneral Charles de Gaulle Champs-Élysées celebrating liberation of Paris (26 August 1944).
Network of highways around Lyon, Roman Catholic (400,000), See also List of railway stations Paris Paris skyline 2014. The entrance Old Port flanked Fort Saint-Jean Fort Saint-Nicolas Université de la Méditerranée Aix-Marseille II, Climate data Marignane (Aéroport Marseille Provence) 43°26'18.4N 5°12'51.9E (1981–2010 averages record highs lows 1921–present). France has close association with Modern Olympic Games was French aristocrat Baron Pierre de Coubertin who suggested Games' revival end of 19th century After Athens was awarded first Games reference Olympics' Greek origins Paris hosted second Games 1900 Paris was first home of International Olympic Committee before moved Lausanne Since 1900 France has hosted Olympics 4 further occasions 1924 Summer Olympics again Paris three Winter Games (1924 Chamonix 1968 Grenoble 1992 Albertville)Similar Olympics France introduced Olympics deaf people (Deaflympics) 1924 with idea of French deaf car mechanic Eugène Rubens-Alcais who paved way organise inaugural edition of Summer Deaflympics ParisZinedine Zidane was named best European footballer of past 50 years 2004 UEFA pollBoth national football team national rugby union team nicknamed Les Bleus reference team's shirt colour well national French tricolour flag Football most popular sport France with over 1,800,000 registered players over 18,000 registered clubsfootball team among most successful world with two FIFA World Cup victories 1998 2018, one FIFA World Cup second place 2006, two UEFA European Championships 1984 2000The top national football club competition Ligue 1 France has produced some of greatest players world including three time FIFA World Player of Year Zinedine Zidane three time Ballon d'Or recipient Michel Platini record holder most goals scored World Cup Just Fontaine first football player receive Légion d'honneur Raymond Kopa record goalscorer French national team Thierry Henrysoccer match Stade de France 1998 FIFA World Cup, Paris grew population from about 400,000 1640 650,000 1780new boulevard Champs-Élysées extended city west Étoile, while working-class neighbourhood of Faubourg Saint-Antoine eastern site of city grew more more crowded with poor migrant workers from other regions of FranceParis was centre of explosion of philosophic scientific activity known Age of Enlightenment Diderot d'Alembert published their Encyclopédie 1751 Montgolfier Brothers launched first manned flight hot-air balloon 21 November 1783 from gardens of Château de la Muette Paris was financial capital of continental Europe primary European centre of book publishing fashion manufacture of fine furniture luxury goodsThe storming of Bastille 14 July 1789 Jean-Baptiste Lallemand (Musée de la Révolution française). See Wiktionary name of Paris various languages other than English FrenchThe name Paris derived from its early inhabitants Celtic Parisii tribecity's name not related Paris of Greek mythologyParis often referred City of Light (La Ville Lumière), both because of its leading role during Age of Enlightenment more literally because Paris was one of first European cities adopt gas street lighting. 1860s boulevards streets of Paris were illuminated 56,000 gas lamps Since late 19th century Paris has also been known Panam(e) (pronounced [panam]) French slangInhabitants known English Parisians French Parisiens ([paʁizjɛ̃] (About this sound listen)) They also pejoratively called Parigots ([paʁiɡo] (About this sound listen)).[note 1]. French census data does not contain information about religious affiliation According 2011 survey IFOP French public opinion research organisation 61 percent of residents of Paris Region (Île-de-France) identified themselves Roman Catholic though just 15 percent said they were practising Catholics while 46 percent were non-practicing same survey 7 percent of residents identified themselves Muslims 4 percent Protestants 2 percent Jewish 25 percent without religionAccording INSEE French government statistical office between 4 5 million French residents were born or had least one parent born predominantly Muslim country particularly Algeria Morocco Tunisia IFOP survey 2008 reported that of immigrants from these predominantly Muslim countries 25 percent went mosque regularly 41 percent practised religion 34 percent were believers but did not practice religion2012 2013 was estimated that there were almost 500,000 Muslims City of Paris 1.5 million Muslims Île-de-France region 4 5 million Muslims FranceThe Jewish population of Paris Region was estimated 2014 be 282,000 largest concentration of Jews world outside of Israel United StatesEconomy. Basilica of Notre-Dame de Fourvière large 19th-century basilica top of Fourvière Hill. The most commonly used tarot deck takes its name from city has been called Tarot de Marseille since 1930s—a name coined commercial use French cardmaker cartomancer Paul Marteau owner of B–P Grimaud Previously this deck was called Tarot italien (Italian Tarot) even earlier was simply called Tarot Before being de Marseille was used play local variant of tarocchi before became used cartomancy end of 18th century following trend set Antoine Court de Gébelin name Tarot de Marseille (Marteau used name ancien Tarot de Marseille) was used contrast other types of Tarots such Tarot de Besançon those names were simply associated with cities where there were many cardmakers 18th century (previously several cities France were involved cardmaking)Another local tradition making of santons small hand-crafted figurines traditional Provençal Christmas creche Since 1803 starting last Sunday of November there has been Santon Fair Marseille currently held Cours d'Estienne d'Orves large square off Vieux-PortOpera; France has been centre of Western cultural development centuries Many French artists have been among most renowned of their time France still recognised world its rich cultural traditionThe successive political regimes have always promoted artistic creation creation of Ministry of Culture 1959 helped preserve cultural heritage of country make available public Ministry of Culture has been very active since its creation granting subsidies artists promoting French culture world supporting festivals cultural events protecting historical monuments French government also succeeded maintaining cultural exception defend audiovisual products made countryFrance receives highest number of tourists per year largely thanks numerous cultural establishments historical buildings implanted all over territory counts 1,200 museums welcoming more than 50 million people annuallymost important cultural sites run government instance through public agency Centre des monuments nationaux which responsible approximately 85 national historical monumentsThe 43,180 buildings protected historical monuments include mainly residences (many castles) religious buildings (cathedrals basilicas churches) but also statutes memorials gardens UNESCO inscribed 41 sites France World Heritage ListArt, ISARA (Institut Supérieur d'Agriculture Rhône Alpes), Notre-Dame de Reims Roman Catholic cathedral where kings of France were crowned until 1825.[XV].