Église Saint-Paul Romanesque (12th 13th century) Gothic (15th–16th century) church France's highest courts located Paris Court of Cassation highest court judicial order which reviews criminal civil cases located Palais de Justice Île de la Cité, while Conseil d'État which provides legal advice executive acts highest court administrative order judging litigation against public bodies located Palais-Royal 1st arrondissementConstitutional Council advisory body with ultimate authority constitutionality of laws government decrees also meets Montpensier wing of Palais RoyalParis its region host headquarters of several international organisations including UNESCO Organisation Economic Co-operation Development International Chamber of Commerce Paris Club European Space Agency International Energy Agency Organisation internationale de la Francophonie European Union Institute Security Studies International Bureau of Weights Measures International Exhibition Bureau International Federation Human RightsFollowing motto Only Paris worthy of Rome only Rome worthy of Paris only sister city of Paris Rome although Paris has partnership agreements with many other cities around worldPolice force. Main article List of French inventions discoveries, 1st arrondissement Slopes of La Croix-Rousse Terreaux Martinière/St-Vincent, Main articles Francia Merovingian dynasty Carolingian dynasty. The Paris region hosts France's highest concentration of grandes écoles – 55 specialised centres of higher-education outside public university structure prestigious public universities usually considered grands établissements Most of grandes écoles were relocated suburbs of Paris 1960s 1970s new campuses much larger than old campuses within crowded city of Paris though École Normale Supérieure has remained rue d'Ulm 5th arrondissement There high number of engineering schools led Paris Institute of Technology which comprises several colleges such École Polytechnique École des Mines AgroParisTech Télécom Paris Arts et Métiers École des Ponts et Chaussées There also many business schools including HEC INSEAD ESSEC ESCP Europe administrative school such ENA has been relocated Strasbourg political science school Sciences-Po still located Paris's 7th arrondissement most prestigious university of economics finance Paris-Dauphine located Paris's 16th Parisian school of journalism CELSA department of Paris-Sorbonne University located Neuilly-sur-Seine Paris also home several of France's most famous high-schools such Lycée Louis-le-Grand Lycée Henri-IV Lycée Janson de Sailly Lycée Condorcet National Institute of Sport Physical Education located 12th arrondissement both physical education institute high-level training centre elite athletesLibraries. Marseille major French centre trade industry with excellent transportation infrastructure (roads sea port airport) Marseille Provence Airport fourth largest France May 2005 French financial magazine L'Expansion named Marseille most dynamic of France's large cities citing figures showing that 7,200 companies had been created city since 2000 Marseille also France's second largest research centre with 3,000 research scientists within Aix Marseille University. of 2014 Marseille metropolitan area had GDP amounting $60.3 billion or $36,127 per capita (purchasing power parity)Port. The Association Pour le Developpement de la Langue et de la Culture Japonaises (ADLCJ リヨン補習授業校 Riyon Hoshū Jugyō Kō) held Maison Berty Albrecht Villeurbanne near Lyonwas formed 1987serves Japanese expatriate children who wish continue their Japanese education whilst abroadTransport. Main article French literature The entrance Old Port flanked Fort Saint-Jean Fort Saint-Nicolas.
The Château d'If Main articles Landmarks Paris Historical quarters of Paris List of tourist attractions Paris! Calanques National Park Bouches-du-Rhône one of best known protected areas of FranceFrance was one of first countries create environment ministry 1971 Although one of most industrialised countries world France ranked only 17th carbon dioxide emissions behind less populous nations such Canada or Australia This because France decided invest nuclear power following 1973 oil crisis, which now accounts 75% of its electricity production results less pollutionThe forest of Rambouillet Yvelines illustrates France's flora diversityLike all European Union state members France agreed cut carbon emissions least 20% of 1990 levels year 2020, compared United States plan reduce emissions 4% of 1990 levelsof 2009 French carbon dioxide emissions per capita were lower than that of China'scountry was set impose carbon tax 2009 17 euros per tonne of carbon emitted, which would have raised 4 billion euros of revenue annually However plan was abandoned due fears of burdening French businessesForests account 28% of France's land area, some of most diverse Europe comprising more than 140 species of trees There nine national parks 46 natural parks France, with government planning convert 20% of its Exclusive Economic Zone into Marine Protected Area 2020regional nature park (French parc naturel régional or PNR) public establishment France between local authorities French national government covering inhabited rural area of outstanding beauty order protect scenery heritage well setting up sustainable economic development areaPNR sets goals guidelines managed human habitation sustainable economic development protection of natural environment based each park's unique landscape heritage parks foster ecological research programmes public education natural sciencesof 2014 there 49 PNRs FranceAccording 2016 Environmental Performance Index conducted Yale Columbia France was tenth-most environmentally-conscious country worldAdministrative divisions, According Article 2 of Constitution official language of France French, Romance language derived from Latin Since 1635 Académie française has been France's official authority French language although its recommendations carry no legal weight There also regional languages spoken France such Occitan Breton Catalan Flemish (Dutch dialect) Alsatian (German dialect) Basque others (see Languages of France) Italian was official language of Corsica until May 9 1859The French government does not regulate choice of language publications individuals but use of French required law commercial workplace communications addition mandating use of French territory of Republic French government tries promote French European Union globally through institutions such La Francophonie perceived threat from anglicisation has prompted efforts safeguard position of French language France Besides French there exist 77 vernacular minority languages of France eight spoken French metropolitan territory 69 French overseas territoriesFrom 17th mid-20th century French served pre-eminent international language of diplomacy international affairs well lingua franca among educated classes of Europedominant position of French language international affairs was overtaken English since emergence of US major powerFor most of time which French served international lingua franca was not native language of most Frenchmen report 1794 conducted Henri Grégoire found that of country's 25 million people only three million spoke French natively rest spoke one of country's many regional languages such Alsatian Breton or Occitan Through expansion of public education which French was sole language of instruction well other factors such increased urbanisation rise of mass communication French gradually came be adopted virtually entire population process not completed until 20th centuryAs result of France's extensive colonial ambitions between 17th 20th centuries French was introduced Americas Africa Polynesia South-East Asia Caribbean French second most studied foreign language world after English, lingua franca some regions notably Africa legacy of French living language outside Europe mixed nearly extinct some former French colonies (The Levant South Southeast Asia) while creoles pidgins based French have emerged French departments West Indies South Pacific (French Polynesia) other hand many former French colonies have adopted French official language total number of French speakers increasing especially AfricaIt estimated that between 300 million 500 million people worldwide can speak French either mother tongue or second languageAccording 2007 Adult Education survey part of project European Union carried France Insee based sample of 15,350 persons French was first mother tongue of 87.2% of total population or roughly 55.81 million people followed Arabic (3.6% 2.30 million) Portuguese (1.5% 0.96 million) Spanish (1.2% 0.77 million) Italian (1.0% 0.64 million) People who had other languages their mother tongue made up 5.2% of populationReligion, Institution des Chartreux.