Child Custody and Family Lawyer Serving the Inland Empire of Southern California
The Louvre, France one of biggest contributors European Space Agency which conceived Ariane rocket family launched from French GuianaSince Middle Ages France has been major contributor scientific technological achievement Around beginning of 11th century Pope Sylvester II born Gerbert d'Aurillac reintroduced abacus armillary sphere introduced Arabic numerals clocks Northern Western EuropeUniversity of Paris founded mid-12th century still one of most important universities Western world 17th century mathematician René Descartes defined method acquisition of scientific knowledge while Blaise Pascal became famous his work probability fluid mechanics They were both key figures of Scientific revolution which blossomed Europe during this period Academy of Sciences was founded Louis XIV encourage protect spirit of French scientific research was forefront of scientific developments Europe 17th 18th centuries one of earliest academies of sciencesThe Age of Enlightenment was marked work of biologist Buffon chemist Lavoisier who discovered role of oxygen combustion while Diderot D'Alembert published Encyclopédie which aimed give access useful knowledge people knowledge that they can apply their everyday life With Industrial Revolution 19th century saw spectacular scientific developments France with scientists such Augustin Fresnel founder of modern optics Sadi Carnot who laid foundations of thermodynamics Louis Pasteur pioneer of microbiology Other eminent French scientists of 19th century have their names inscribed Eiffel TowerFamous French scientists of 20th century include mathematician physicist Henri Poincaré physicists Henri Becquerel Pierre Marie Curie remained famous their work radioactivity physicist Paul Langevin virologist Luc Montagnier co-discoverer of HIV AIDS Hand transplantation was developed 23 September 1998 Lyon team assembled from different countries around world including Jean-Michel Dubernard who shortly thereafter performed first successful double hand transplant Telesurgery was developed Jacques Marescaux his team 7 September 2001 across Atlantic Ocean (New-York-Strasbourg Lindbergh Operation)face transplant was first done 27 November 2005 Dr Bernard DevauchelleTop view of ring of European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Main article Health France France has close association with Modern Olympic Games was French aristocrat Baron Pierre de Coubertin who suggested Games' revival end of 19th century After Athens was awarded first Games reference Olympics' Greek origins Paris hosted second Games 1900 Paris was first home of International Olympic Committee before moved Lausanne Since 1900 France has hosted Olympics 4 further occasions 1924 Summer Olympics again Paris three Winter Games (1924 Chamonix 1968 Grenoble 1992 Albertville)Similar Olympics France introduced Olympics deaf people (Deaflympics) 1924 with idea of French deaf car mechanic Eugène Rubens-Alcais who paved way organise inaugural edition of Summer Deaflympics ParisZinedine Zidane was named best European footballer of past 50 years 2004 UEFA pollBoth national football team national rugby union team nicknamed Les Bleus reference team's shirt colour well national French tricolour flag Football most popular sport France with over 1,800,000 registered players over 18,000 registered clubsfootball team among most successful world with two FIFA World Cup victories 1998 2018, one FIFA World Cup second place 2006, two UEFA European Championships 1984 2000The top national football club competition Ligue 1 France has produced some of greatest players world including three time FIFA World Player of Year Zinedine Zidane three time Ballon d'Or recipient Michel Platini record holder most goals scored World Cup Just Fontaine first football player receive Légion d'honneur Raymond Kopa record goalscorer French national team Thierry Henrysoccer match Stade de France 1998 FIFA World Cup. The National University Library campus of University of StrasbourgIn 1802 Napoleon created lycée Nevertheless Jules Ferry who considered be father of French modern school which free secular compulsory until age of 13 since 1882 (school attendance France now compulsory until age of 16)Nowadays schooling system France centralised composed of three stages primary education secondary education higher education Programme International Student Assessment coordinated OECD ranked France's education about OECD average 2015 Primary secondary education predominantly public run Ministry of National Education France education compulsory from six sixteen years old public school secular free While training remuneration of teachers curriculum responsibility of state centrally management of primary secondary schools overseen local authorities Primary education comprises two phases nursery school (école maternelle) elementary school (école élémentaire) Nursery school aims stimulate minds of very young children promote their socialisation development of basic grasp of language number Around age of six children transfer elementary school whose primary objectives learning about writing arithmetic citizenship Secondary education also consists of two phases first delivered through colleges (collège) leads national certificate (Diplôme national du brevet) second offered high schools (lycée) finishes national exams leading baccalaureate (baccalauréat available professional technical or general flavours) or certificate of professional competence (certificat d'aptitude professionelle)Higher education divided between public universities prestigious selective Grandes écoles such Sciences Po Paris Political studies HEC Paris Economics Polytechnique École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris that produce high-profile engineers or École nationale d'administration careers Grands Corps of state Grandes écoles have been criticised alleged elitism they have produced many if not most of France's high-ranking civil servants CEOs politiciansSince higher education funded state fees very low tuition fees vary from €150 €700 depending university different levels of education (licence master doctorate) One can therefore get master's degree (in 5 years) about €750–3,500 tuition fees public engineering schools comparable universities albeit little higher (around €700) However they can reach €7000 year private engineering schools while business schools which all private or partially private charge up €15000 year Health insurance students free until age of 20Culture, Parc de Miribel-Jonage (2200 hectares) Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital Paris stone building with slate dome. Parc des hauteurs Fourvières Anti-terrorism demonstration Place de la République after Charlie Hebdo shooting 11 January 2015. Marseille connected Marseille Métro train system operated Régie des transports de Marseille (RTM) consists of two lines Line 1 (blue) between Castellane La Rose opened 1977 Line 2 (red) between Sainte-Marguerite-Dromel Bougainville opened between 1984 1987 extension of Line 1 from Castellane La Timone was completed 1992 another extension from La Timone La Fourragère (2.5 km (1.6 mi) 4 new stations) was opened May 2010 Métro system operates turnstile system with tickets purchased nearby adjacent automated booths Both lines of Métro intersect Gare Saint-Charles Castellane Three bus rapid transit lines under construction better connect Métro farther places (Castellane -> Luminy Capitaine Gèze – La Cabucelle -> Vallon des Tuves La Rose -> Château Gombert – Saint Jérome)The new tramway, Unemployment economy fell from 20% 1995 14% 2004 However Marseille unemployment rate remains higher than national average some parts of Marseille youth unemployment reported be high 40%Administration. Chanel's headquarters Place Vendôme ParisFashion has been important industry cultural export of France since 17th century modern haute couture originated Paris 1860s Today Paris along with London Milan New York City considered one of world's fashion capitals city home or headquarters many of premier fashion houses expression Haute couture is France legally protected name guaranteeing certain quality standardsThe association of France with fashion style (French la mode) dates largely reign of Louis XIV when luxury goods industries France came increasingly under royal control French royal court became arguably arbiter of taste style Europe But France renewed its dominance of high fashion (French couture or haute couture) industry years 1860–1960 through establishing of great couturier houses such Chanel Dior Givenchy French perfume industry world leader its sector centered town of GrasseIn 1960s elitist Haute couture came under criticism from France's youth culture 1966 designer Yves Saint Laurent broke with established Haute Couture norms launching prêt-à-porter (ready wear) line expanding French fashion into mass manufacturing With greater focus marketing manufacturing new trends were established Sonia Rykiel Thierry Mugler Claude Montana Jean-Paul Gaultier Christian Lacroix 1970s 1980s 1990s saw conglomeration of many French couture houses under luxury giants multinationals such LVMHMedia! René Descartes founder of modern philosophyFrench philosophers produced some of most important political works of Age of Enlightenment Spirit of Laws Baron de Montesquieu theorised principle of separation of powers which has been implemented all liberal democracies since was first applied United States Voltaire came embody Enlightenment with his defence of civil liberties such right free trial freedom of religion19th-century French thought was targeted responding social malaise following French Revolution Rationalist philosophers such Victor Cousin Auguste Comte who called new social doctrine were opposed reactionary thinkers such Joseph de Maistre Louis de Bonald Félicité Robert de Lamennais who blamed rationalist rejection of traditional order De Maistre considered together with Englishman Edmund Burke one of founders of European conservatism while Comte regarded founder of positivism which Émile Durkheim reformulated basis social researchIn 20th century partly reaction perceived excesses of positivism French spiritualism thrived with thinkers such Henri Bergson influenced American pragmatism Whitehead's version of process philosophy Meanwhile French epistemology became prominent school of thought with Jules Henri Poincaré Gaston Bachelard Jean Cavaillès Jules Vuillemin Influenced German phenomenology existentialism philosophy of Jean-Paul Sartre gained strong influence after World War II late-20th-century-France became craddle of postmodern philosophy with Jean-François Lyotard Jean Baudrillard Jacques Derrida Michel FoucaultMusic, A tropical climate (Am) most overseas regions including eastern French Guiana high constant temperature throughout year with dry wet seasonAn equatorial climate (Af) western French Guiana high constant temperature with even precipitation throughout yearA subpolar climate (Et) Saint Pierre Miquelon most of French Southern Antarctic Lands short mild summers long very cold wintersEnvironment, See also Ministry of Ecology Sustainable Development Energy National parks of France Regional natural parks of France; Marseille served European Capital of Culture 2013 along with Košice Marseille-Provence 2013 (MP2013) featured more than 900 cultural events held throughout Marseille surrounding communities These cultural events generated more than 11 million visitsEuropean Capital of Culture was also occasion unveil more than 600 million euros new cultural infrastructure Marseille its environs including iconic MuCEM designed Rudy RicciottiTarot de Marseille, The west of France has strictly oceanic climate (Cfb) – extends from Flanders Basque Country coastal strip several tens of kilometres wide narrower north south but wider Brittany which almost entirely this climate zoneThe climate of Southwest also oceanic but warmerThe climate of Northwest oceanic but cooler windierAway from coast climate oceanic throughout but its characteristics change somewhat Paris sedimentary basin and more so basins protected mountain chains show stronger seasonal temperature variability less rainfall during autumn winter Therefore most of territory has semi-oceanic climate forms transition zone between strictly oceanic climate near coasts other climate zonesThe semi-continental climate (Dfa) of north centre-east (Alsace plains of Saône middle part of Rhône Dauphiné Auvergne Savoy)The Mediterranean lower Rhône valley experience Mediterranean climate (Csa Csb) due effect of mountain chains isolating them from rest of country resulting Mistral Tramontane windsThe mountain (or alpine) climates (Dfc ET) confined Alps Pyrenees summits of Massif Central Jura VosgesIn overseas regions there three broad types of climate, Main article Cinema of France Main article Administrative divisions of France.
Main article Climate of Paris Rue de Rivoli, Lyon pilot city of Council of Europe European Commission Intercultural cities programFrance (French [fʁɑ̃s]) officially French Republic (French République française French pronunciation [ʁepyblik fʁɑ̃sɛz]) country whose territory consists of metropolitan France Western Europe several overseas regions territories.[XIII] metropolitan area of France extends from Mediterranean Sea English Channel North Sea from Rhine Atlantic Ocean overseas territories include French Guiana South America several islands Atlantic Pacific Indian oceans country's 18 integral regions (five of which situated overseas) span combined area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) total population of 67.3 million (as of October 2018) France sovereign state unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital Paris country's largest city main cultural commercial centre Other major urban areas include Lyon Marseille Toulouse Bordeaux Lille NiceDuring Iron Age what now metropolitan France was inhabited Gauls Celtic people Rome annexed area 51 BC holding until arrival of Germanic Franks 476 who formed Kingdom of France France emerged major European power Late Middle Ages following its victory Hundred Years' War (1337 1453) During Renaissance French culture flourished global colonial empire was established which 20th century would become second largest world16th century was dominated religious civil wars between Catholics Protestants (Huguenots) France became Europe's dominant cultural political military power 17th century under Louis XIV late 18th century French Revolution overthrew absolute monarchy established one of modern history's earliest republics saw drafting of Declaration of Rights of Man of Citizen which expresses nation's ideals this dayIn 19th century Napoleon took power established First French Empire His subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped course of continental Europe Following collapse of Empire France endured tumultuous succession of governments culminating with establishment of French Third Republic 1870 France was major participant World War I from which emerged victorious was one of Allies World War II but came under occupation Axis powers 1940 Following liberation 1944 Fourth Republic was established later dissolved course of Algerian War Fifth Republic led Charles de Gaulle was formed 1958 remains today Algeria nearly all other colonies became independent 1960s typically retained close economic military connections with FranceFrance has long been global centre of art science philosophy hosts world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites leading tourist destination receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually France developed country with world's seventh-largest economy nominal GDP, tenth-largest purchasing power parityterms of aggregate household wealth ranks fourth world France performs well international rankings of education health care life expectancy human development France considered great power global affairs, being one of five permanent members of United Nations Security Council with power veto official nuclear-weapon state leading member state of European Union Eurozone, member of Group of 7 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Organisation Economic Co-operation Development (OECD) World Trade Organization (WTO) La FrancophonieEtymology. Italy Rome Italy 1956 Vieux Lyon (English Old Lyon) area Mediaeval Renaissance quarter of town with shops dining cobbled streets, The Region of Île de France including Paris its surrounding communities governed Regional Council which has its headquarters 7th arrondissement of Paris composed of 209 members representing different communes within region 15 December 2015 list of candidates of Union of Right coalition of centrist right-wing parties led Valérie Pécresse narrowly won regional election defeating coalition of Socialists ecologists Socialists had governed region seventeen years regional council has 121 members from Union of Right 66 from Union of Left 22 from extreme right National FrontNational government, Tour du Crédit Lyonnais The security of Paris mainly responsibility of Prefecture of Police of Paris subdivision of Ministry of Interior of France supervises units of National Police who patrol city three neighbouring departments also responsible providing emergency services including Paris Fire Brigade Its headquarters Place Louis Lépine Île de la CitéThere 30,200 officers under prefecture fleet of more than 6,000 vehicles including police cars motorcycles fire trucks boats helicopters addition traditional police duties local police monitors number of discount sales held large stores (no more than two year allowed) verify that during summer holidays least one bakery open every neighbourhoodnational police has its own special unit riot control crowd control security of public buildings called Compagnies Républicaines de Sécurité (CRS) unit formed 1944 right after liberation of France Vans of CRS agents frequently seen centre of city when there demonstrations public eventsThe police supported National Gendarmerie branch of French Armed Forces though their police operations now supervised Ministry of Interior traditional kepis of gendarmes were replaced 2002 with caps force modernised though they still wear kepis ceremonial occasionsCrime Paris similar that most large cities Violent crime relatively rare city centre Political violence uncommon though very large demonstrations may occur Paris other French cities simultaneously These demonstrations usually managed strong police presence can turn confrontational escalate into violenceCityscape! Université de la Méditerranée Aix-Marseille II See also Paris 18th century Paris during Second Empire Haussmann's renovation of Paris, Most of attractions of Marseille (including shopping areas) located 1st 2nd 6th 7th arrondissements These include. There 440 km (270 mi) of cycle paths routes Paris These include piste cyclable (bike lanes separated from other traffic physical barriers such kerb) bande cyclable (a bicycle lane denoted painted path road) Some 29 km (18 mi) of specially marked bus lanes free be used cyclists with protective barrier protecting against encroachments from vehicles Cyclists have also been given right ride both directions certain one-way streets Paris offers bike sharing system called Vélib' with more than 20,000 public bicycles distributed 1,800 parking stations, which can be rented short medium distances including one way tripsElectricity, Musée Gadagne museum of history of Lyon housed historic building Vieux Lyon Also includes large collection of marionnettes, See Wiktionary name of Paris various languages other than English FrenchThe name Paris derived from its early inhabitants Celtic Parisii tribecity's name not related Paris of Greek mythologyParis often referred City of Light (La Ville Lumière), both because of its leading role during Age of Enlightenment more literally because Paris was one of first European cities adopt gas street lighting. 1860s boulevards streets of Paris were illuminated 56,000 gas lamps Since late 19th century Paris has also been known Panam(e) (pronounced [panam]) French slangInhabitants known English Parisians French Parisiens ([paʁizjɛ̃] (About this sound listen)) They also pejoratively called Parigots ([paʁiɡo] (About this sound listen)).[note 1].