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Ring roads of Paris See also List of railway stations Paris, Network of highways around Lyon! Le Penseur Auguste Rodin (1902) Musée Rodin ParisIn second part of 19th century France's influence over painting became even more important with development of new styles of painting such Impressionism Symbolism most famous impressionist painters of period were Camille Pissarro Édouard Manet Edgar Degas Claude Monet Auguste Renoirsecond generation of impressionist-style painters Paul Cézanne Paul Gauguin Toulouse-Lautrec Georges Seurat were also avant-garde of artistic evolutions, well fauvist artists Henri Matisse André Derain Maurice de VlaminckAt beginning of 20th century Cubism was developed Georges Braque Spanish painter Pablo Picasso living Paris Other foreign artists also settled worked or near Paris such Vincent van Gogh Marc Chagall Amedeo Modigliani Wassily KandinskyMany museums France entirely or partly devoted sculptures painting works huge collection of old masterpieces created before or during 18th century displayed state-owned Musée du Louvre such Mona Lisa also known La Joconde While Louvre Palace has been long time museum Musée d'Orsay was inaugurated 1986 old railway station Gare d'Orsay major reorganisation of national art collections gather French paintings from second part of 19th century (mainly Impressionism Fauvism movements)Modern works presented Musée National d'Art Moderne which moved 1976 Centre Georges Pompidou These three state-owned museums welcome close 17 million people year Other national museums hosting paintings include Grand Palais (1.3 million visitors 2008) but there also many museums owned cities most visited being Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris (0.8 million entries 2008) which hosts contemporary works Outside Paris all large cities have Museum of Fine Arts with section dedicated European French painting Some of finest collections Lyon Lille Rouen Dijon Rennes GrenobleArchitecture, See also Marseille-Fos Port, Cathedral of St John During Hundred Years' War Paris was occupied England-friendly Burgundian forces from 1418 before being occupied outright English when Henry V of England entered French capital 1420 spite of 1429 effort Joan of Arc liberate city, would remain under English occupation until 1436In late 16th-century French Wars of Religion Paris was stronghold of Catholic League organisers of 24 August 1572 St Bartholomew's Day massacre which thousands of French Protestants were killedconflicts ended when pretender throne Henry IV after converting Catholicism gain entry capital entered city 1594 claimed crown of France This king made several improvements capital during his reign he completed construction of Paris's first uncovered sidewalk-lined bridge Pont Neuf built Louvre extension connecting Tuileries Palace created first Paris residential square Place Royale now Place des Vosges king would end his life capital assassinated narrow street near Les Halles marketplace 1610During 17th century Cardinal Richelieu chief minister of Louis XIII was determined make Paris most beautiful city Europe He built five new bridges new chapel College of Sorbonne palace himself Palais Cardinal which he bequeathed Louis XIII After Richelieu's death 1642 was renamed Palais-RoyalDue Parisian uprisings during Fronde civil war Louis XIV moved his court new palace Versailles 1682 Although no longer capital of France arts sciences city flourished with Comédie-Française Academy of Painting French Academy of Sciences demonstrate that city was safe from attack king had city walls demolished replaced with tree-lined boulevards that would become Grands Boulevards of today Other marks of his reign were Collège des Quatre-Nations Place Vendôme Place des Victoires Les Invalides18th 19th centuries. Main article Paris Métro Main article France twentieth century, The Louvre Main articles Gaul Celts Roman Gaul.
Main articles List of parks gardens Paris History of Parks Gardens of Paris In addition classical restaurants Paris has several other kinds of traditional eating places café arrived Paris 17th century when beverage was first brought from Turkey 18th century Parisian cafés were centres of city's political cultural life Café Procope Left Bank dates from this period 20th century cafés of Left Bank especially Café de la Rotonde Le Dôme Café Montparnasse Café de Flore Les Deux Magots Boulevard Saint Germain all still business were important meeting places painters writers philosophersbistro type of eating place loosely defined neighbourhood restaurant with modest decor prices regular clientele congenial atmosphere Its name said have come 1814 from Russian soldiers who occupied city bistro means quickly Russian they wanted their meals served rapidly so they could get back their encampment Real bistros increasingly rare Paris due rising costs competition from cheaper ethnic restaurants different eating habits of Parisian dinersbrasserie originally was tavern located next brewery which served beer food any hour Beginning with Paris Exposition of 1867 became popular kind of restaurant which featured beer other beverages served young women national costume associated with beverage particular German costumes beer Now brasseries like cafés serve food drinks throughout dayFashion. The Palais Longchamp with its monumental fountain Ambox rewrite.svg École Normale Supérieure de Lyon Main article Telecommunications France Chanel's headquarters storefront window Place Vendôme Paris with awning. Opéra Nouvel (1831) renovated 1993 Jean Nouvel The GDP of Lyon was 74 billion euro 2012, it's second richest city France after Paris Lyon its region Rhône-Alpes represent one of most important economies Europe and according Loughborough University can be compared Philadelphia Mumbai or Athens with regard its international position city of Lyon working partnership more easily enable establishment of new headquarters territory (ADERLY Chambre du commerce et d'industrie Grand Lyon...) High-tech industries such biotechnology software development video game (Arkane Studios Ivory Tower Eden Games EA France Bandai Namco Entertainment Europe) internet services also growing Other important sectors include medical research technology non-profit institutions universities Lyon home P4-Inserm–ean Merieux Laboratory which conducts top-level vaccine researchThe city home headquarters of many large companies such Groupe SEB Sanofi Pasteur Renault Trucks Norbert Dentressangle LCL S.ADescours & Cabaud Merial Point S BioMérieux Iveco Bus Compagnie Nationale du Rhône GL Events April Group Boiron Feu Vert Panzani Babolat Euronews Lyon Airports LVL Medical inter-governmental agencies IARC Interpol specialisation of some sectors of activities has led creation of many main business centres La Part-Dieu located 3rd arrondissement second biggest business quarter after La Défense Paris with over 1,600,000 m2 (17,222,256.67 sq ft) of office space services more than 55,000 jobs Cité Internationale created architect Renzo Piano located border of Parc de la Tête d'Or 6th arrondissement worldwide headquarters of Interpol located there district of Confluence south of historic centre new pole of economical cultural developmentTourism important part of Lyon economy with one billion euros 2007 3.5 million hotel-nights 2006 provided non-residents Approximately 60% of tourists visit business with rest leisure January 2009 Lyon ranked first France hostels business festivals most important attracting tourists Fête des lumières Nuits de Fourvière every summer Biennale d'art contemporain Nuits SonoresDemographics. French music then followed rapid emergence of pop rock music middle of 20th century Although English-speaking creations achieved popularity country French pop music known chanson française has also remained very popular Among most important French artists of century Édith Piaf Georges Brassens Léo Ferré Charles Aznavour Serge Gainsbourg Although there very few rock bands France compared English-speaking countries, bands such Noir Désir Mano Negra Niagara Les Rita Mitsouko more recently Superbus Phoenix Gojira, or Shaka Ponk have reached worldwide popularityOther French artists with international careers have been popular several countries example female singers Dalida Mireille Mathieu Mylène Farmer, Alizée Nolwenn Leroy,[verification needed] electronic music pioneers Jean-Michel Jarre Laurent Garnier Bob Sinclar later Martin Solveig David Guetta 1990s 2000s (decade) electronic duos Daft Punk Justice Air also reached worldwide popularity contributed reputation of modern electronic music worldAmong current musical events institutions France many dedicated classical music operas most prestigious institutions state-owned Paris National Opera (with its two sites Palais Garnier Opéra Bastille) Opéra National de Lyon Théâtre du Châtelet Paris Théâtre du Capitole Toulouse Grand Théâtre de Bordeaux music festivals there several events organised most popular being Eurockéennes (a word play which sounds French European) Solidays Rock en Seine Fête de la Musique imitated many foreign cities was first launched French Government 1982 Major music halls venues France include Le Zénith sites present many cities other places Paris (Paris Olympia Théâtre Mogador Élysée Montmartre)Cinema, Universities tertiary education Victor Hugo Paris has typical Western European oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification Cfb) which affected North Atlantic Current overall climate throughout year mild moderately wet Summer days usually warm pleasant with average temperatures between 15 25 °C (59 77 °F) fair amount of sunshine Each year however there few days when temperature rises above 32 °C (90 °F) Longer periods of more intense heat sometimes occur such heat wave of 2003 when temperatures exceeded 30 °C (86 °F) weeks reached 40 °C (104 °F) some days seldom cooled down night Spring autumn have average mild days fresh nights but changing unstable Surprisingly warm or cool weather occurs frequently both seasonswinter sunshine scarce days cool nights cold but generally above freezing with low temperatures around 3 °C (37 °F) Light night frosts however quite common but temperature will dip below −5 °C (23 °F) only few days year Snow falls every year but rarely stays ground city sometimes sees light snow or flurries with or without accumulationParis has average annual precipitation of 641 mm (25.2 in) experiences light rainfall distributed evenly throughout year However city known intermittent abrupt heavy showers highest recorded temperature 40.4 °C (104.7 °F) 28 July 1947 lowest −23.9 °C (−11.0 °F) 10 December 1879Climate data Paris (Parc Montsouris) 1981–2010 averages extremes 1872–present. The Château d'If, Since 2000 Birdy Kids group of graffiti artists from city has decorated several random buildings walls along Lyon ring road 2012 artist collective has been chosen represent city its cultural ambassadorsEconomy.