Marseille major French centre trade industry with excellent transportation infrastructure (roads sea port airport) Marseille Provence Airport fourth largest France May 2005 French financial magazine L'Expansion named Marseille most dynamic of France's large cities citing figures showing that 7,200 companies had been created city since 2000 Marseille also France's second largest research centre with 3,000 research scientists within Aix Marseille University. of 2014 Marseille metropolitan area had GDP amounting $60.3 billion or $36,127 per capita (purchasing power parity)Port. See also French cuisine With Clovis's conversion Catholicism 498 Frankish monarchy elective secular until then became hereditary of divine rightThe Franks embraced Christian Gallo-Roman culture ancient Gaul was eventually renamed Francia (Land of Franks) Germanic Franks adopted Romanic languages except northern Gaul where Roman settlements were less dense where Germanic languages emerged Clovis made Paris his capital established Merovingian dynasty but his kingdom would not survive his death Franks treated land purely private possession divided among their heirs so four kingdoms emerged from Clovis's Paris Orléans Soissons Rheims last Merovingian kings lost power their mayors of palace (head of household) One mayor of palace Charles Martel defeated Islamic invasion of Gaul Battle of Tours (732) earned respect power within Frankish kingdoms His son Pepin Short seized crown of Francia from weakened Merovingians founded Carolingian dynasty Pepin's son Charlemagne reunited Frankish kingdoms built vast empire across Western Central EuropeProclaimed Holy Roman Emperor Pope Leo III thus establishing earnest French Government's longtime historical association with Catholic Church, Charlemagne tried revive Western Roman Empire its cultural grandeur Charlemagne's son Louis I (Emperor 814–840) kept empire united however this Carolingian Empire would not survive his death 843 under Treaty of Verdun empire was divided between Louis' three sons with East Francia going Louis German Middle Francia Lothair I West Francia Charles Bald West Francia approximated area occupied by was precursor modern FranceDuring 9th 10th centuries continually threatened Viking invasions France became very decentralised state nobility's titles lands became hereditary authority of king became more religious than secular thus was less effective constantly challenged powerful noblemen Thus was established feudalism France Over time some of king's vassals would grow so powerful that they often posed threat king example after Battle of Hastings 1066 William Conqueror added King of England his titles becoming both vassal (as Duke of Normandy) equal of (as king of England) king of France creating recurring tensionsLate Middle Ages (10th century–15th century). A TGV Duplex crossing Cize–Bolozon viaduct train can reach maximum speed of 360 kilometres per hour (220 mph)The railway network of France which of 2008 stretches 29,473 kilometres (18,314 mi) second most extensive Western Europe after that of Germany operated SNCF high-speed trains include Thalys Eurostar TGV which travels 320 km/h (199 mph) commercial useEurostar along with Eurotunnel Shuttle connects with United Kingdom through Channel Tunnel Rail connections exist all other neighbouring countries Europe except Andorra Intra-urban connections also well developed with both underground services (Paris Lyon Lille Marseille Toulouse Rennes) tramway services (Nantes Strasbourg Bordeaux Grenoble Montpellier...) complementing bus servicesThere approximately 1,027,183 kilometres (638,262 mi) of serviceable roadway France ranking most extensive network of European continentParis region enveloped with most dense network of roads highways that connect with virtually all parts of country French roads also handle substantial international traffic connecting with cities neighbouring Belgium Luxembourg Germany Switzerland Italy Spain Andorra Monaco There no annual registration fee or road tax however usage of mostly privately owned motorways through tolls except vicinity of large communes new car market dominated domestic brands such Renault (27% of cars sold France 2003) Peugeot (20.1%) Citroën (13.5%) Over 70% of new cars sold 2004 had diesel engines far more than contained petrol or LPG engines France possesses Millau Viaduct world's tallest bridge, has built many important bridges such Pont de NormandieAir France one of biggest airlines worldThere 464 airports France Charles de Gaulle Airport located vicinity of Paris largest busiest airport country handling vast majority of popular commercial traffic connecting Paris with virtually all major cities across world Air France national carrier airline although numerous private airline companies provide domestic international travel services There ten major ports France largest of which Marseille, which also largest bordering Mediterranean Sea 12,261 kilometres (7,619 mi) of waterways traverse France including Canal du Midi which connects Mediterranean Sea Atlantic Ocean through Garonne riverScience technology.
In 2017 Greater Paris had 2,020 hotels including 85 five-star hotels with total of 119,000 rooms Paris has long been famous its grand hotels Hotel Meurice opened British travellers 1817 was one of first luxury hotels Parisarrival of railways Paris Exposition of 1855 brought first flood of tourists first modern grand hotels Hôtel du Louvre (now antiques marketplace) 1855 Grand Hotel (now InterContinental Paris Le Grand Hotel) 1862 Hôtel Continental 1878 Hôtel Ritz Place Vendôme opened 1898 followed Hôtel Crillon 18th-century building Place de la Concorde 1909 Hotel Bristol Rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré 1925 Hotel George V 1928In addition hotels 2017 Greater Paris had 84,000 homes registered with Airbnb which received 2.3 million visitors Under French law renters of these units must pay Paris tourism tax company paid city government 7.3 million Euros 2016Culture. As capital of France Paris seat of France's national government executive two chief officers each have their own official residences which also serve their offices President of French Republic resides Élysée Palace 8th arrondissement, while Prime Minister's seat Hôtel Matignon 7th arrondissement Government ministries located various parts of city many located 7th arrondissement near MatignonThe two houses of French Parliament located Left Bank upper house Senate meets Palais du Luxembourg 6th arrondissement while more important lower house Assemblée Nationale meets Palais Bourbon 7th arrondissement President of Senate second-highest public official France (the President of Republic being sole superior) resides Petit Luxembourg smaller palace annexe Palais du LuxembourgThe Palais-Royal residence of Conseil d'État. On 10 August 1792 angry crowd threatened palace of King Louis XVI who took refuge Legislative AssemblyPrussian army invaded France later August 1792 early September Parisians infuriated Prussian army capturing Verdun counter-revolutionary uprisings west of France murdered between 1,000 1,500 prisoners raiding Parisian prisons Assembly Paris city council seemed unable stop that bloodshedNational Convention chosen first elections under male universal suffrage, 20 September 1792 succeeded Legislative Assembly 21 September abolished monarchy proclaiming French First Republic Ex-King Louis XVI was convicted of treason guillotined January 1793 France had declared war England Dutch Republic November 1792 did same Spain March 1793 spring of 1793 Austria Great Britain Dutch Republic invaded France March France created sister republic Republic of MainzAlso March 1793 civil war of Vendée against Paris started evoked both Civil Constitution of Clergy of 1790 nationwide army conscription early 1793 elsewhere France rebellion was brewing too factionalist feud National Convention smoldering ever since October 1791 came climax with group of 'Girondins' 2 June 1793 being forced resign leave Convention counter-revolution begun March 1793 Vendée July had spread Brittany Normandy Bordeaux Marseilles Toulon Lyon Paris' Convention government between October December 1793 with brutal measures managed subdue most internal uprisings cost of tens of thousands of lives Some historians consider civil war have lasted until 1796 with toll of possibly 450,000 lives France February 1794 abolished slavery its American colonies but would reintroduce laterPolitical disagreements enmity National Convention between October 1793 July 1794 reached unprecedented levels leading dozens of Convention members being sentenced death guillotined Meanwhile France's external wars 1794 were going prosperous example Belgium 1795 government seemed return indifference towards desires needs of lower classes concerning freedom of (Catholic) religion fair distribution of food Until 1799 politicians apart from inventing new parliamentary system (the 'Directory') busied themselves with dissuading people from Catholicism from royalismNapoleon 19th century (1799–1914). Université de Provence Aix-Marseille I EM Lyon (École de Management de Lyon). Passage Jouffroy IAE (Institut d'Administration des Entreprises de Lyon), Paris hosts one of largest science museums Europe Cité des Sciences et de l'Industrie La Villette attracted 2.4 million visitors 2017National Museum of Natural History Left Bank attracted 1.76 million visitors 2016 famous its dinosaur artefacts mineral collections its Gallery of Evolution military history of France from Middle Ages World War II vividly presented displays Musée de l'Armée Les Invalides near tomb of Napoleon addition national museums run French Ministry of Culture City of Paris operates 14 museums including Carnavalet Museum history of Paris Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris Palais de Tokyo House of Victor Hugo House of Balzac Catacombs of Paris There also notable private museums Contemporary Art museum of Louis Vuitton Foundation designed architect Frank Gehry opened October 2014 Bois de Boulogne received 1.4 million visitors 2017Theatre. Palais des congrès de Lyon (1998) designed Renzo Piano group of buildings various functions, This section needs be updated Please update this article reflect recent events or newly available information (June 2017). Immigration They take place three main sites Palais du Pharo Palais des Congrès et des Expositions (Parc Chanot) World Trade Center2012 Marseille hosted World Water Forum Several urban projects have been developed make Marseille attractive Thus new parks museums public spaces real estate projects aim improve city's quality of life (Parc du 26e Centenaire Old Port of Marseille, numerous places Euroméditerranée) attract firms people Marseille municipality acts develop Marseille regional nexus entertainment south of France with high concentration of museums cinemas theatres clubs bars restaurants fashion shops hotels art galleriesEmployment, IFAG (Business Management School) The most commonly used tarot deck takes its name from city has been called Tarot de Marseille since 1930s—a name coined commercial use French cardmaker cartomancer Paul Marteau owner of B–P Grimaud Previously this deck was called Tarot italien (Italian Tarot) even earlier was simply called Tarot Before being de Marseille was used play local variant of tarocchi before became used cartomancy end of 18th century following trend set Antoine Court de Gébelin name Tarot de Marseille (Marteau used name ancien Tarot de Marseille) was used contrast other types of Tarots such Tarot de Besançon those names were simply associated with cities where there were many cardmakers 18th century (previously several cities France were involved cardmaking)Another local tradition making of santons small hand-crafted figurines traditional Provençal Christmas creche Since 1803 starting last Sunday of November there has been Santon Fair Marseille currently held Cours d'Estienne d'Orves large square off Vieux-PortOpera.