René Descartes founder of modern philosophyFrench philosophers produced some of most important political works of Age of Enlightenment Spirit of Laws Baron de Montesquieu theorised principle of separation of powers which has been implemented all liberal democracies since was first applied United States Voltaire came embody Enlightenment with his defence of civil liberties such right free trial freedom of religion19th-century French thought was targeted responding social malaise following French Revolution Rationalist philosophers such Victor Cousin Auguste Comte who called new social doctrine were opposed reactionary thinkers such Joseph de Maistre Louis de Bonald Félicité Robert de Lamennais who blamed rationalist rejection of traditional order De Maistre considered together with Englishman Edmund Burke one of founders of European conservatism while Comte regarded founder of positivism which Émile Durkheim reformulated basis social researchIn 20th century partly reaction perceived excesses of positivism French spiritualism thrived with thinkers such Henri Bergson influenced American pragmatism Whitehead's version of process philosophy Meanwhile French epistemology became prominent school of thought with Jules Henri Poincaré Gaston Bachelard Jean Cavaillès Jules Vuillemin Influenced German phenomenology existentialism philosophy of Jean-Paul Sartre gained strong influence after World War II late-20th-century-France became craddle of postmodern philosophy with Jean-François Lyotard Jean Baudrillard Jacques Derrida Michel FoucaultMusic. Parc de la Tête d'or (literally Golden Head Park) central Lyon largest urban park France 117 hectares Located 6th arrondissement features large lake which boating takes place during summer monthsJardin botanique de Lyon (8 hectares) included Parc de la Tête d'Or municipal botanical garden open weekdays without charge garden was established 1857 successor earlier botanical gardens dating 1796 now describes itself France's largest municipal botanical gardenParc de Gerland south of city (80 hectares).
Main article French literature Traditional Marseille bouillabaisse see description Le Panier quarter with Hotel de Ville church of Notre-Dame des Accoules. The former main building of University of Paris now used classes from Paris-Sorbonne University other autonomous campusesParis département with highest proportion of highly educated people 2009 around 40 percent of Parisians held licence-level diploma or higher highest proportion France, while 13 percent have no diploma third-lowest percentage France Education Paris Île-de-France region employs approximately 330,000 people 170,000 of whom teachers professors teaching approximately 2.9 million children students around 9,000 primary secondary higher education schools institutionsThe University of Paris founded 12th century often called Sorbonne after one of its original medieval colleges was broken up into thirteen autonomous universities 1970 following student demonstrations 1968 Most of campuses today Latin Quarter where old university was located while others scattered around city suburbs.[citation not found]. Paris its suburbs seen from Spot Satellite, Paris hosts one of largest science museums Europe Cité des Sciences et de l'Industrie La Villette attracted 2.4 million visitors 2017National Museum of Natural History Left Bank attracted 1.76 million visitors 2016 famous its dinosaur artefacts mineral collections its Gallery of Evolution military history of France from Middle Ages World War II vividly presented displays Musée de l'Armée Les Invalides near tomb of Napoleon addition national museums run French Ministry of Culture City of Paris operates 14 museums including Carnavalet Museum history of Paris Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris Palais de Tokyo House of Victor Hugo House of Balzac Catacombs of Paris There also notable private museums Contemporary Art museum of Louis Vuitton Foundation designed architect Frank Gehry opened October 2014 Bois de Boulogne received 1.4 million visitors 2017Theatre, Musée des beaux-arts de Lyon (Fine Arts Museum) main museum of city one of largest art galleries France Housed Palais Saint Pierre former 17th-century convent displays major collection of paintings artists (including Tintoretto Paolo Veronese Nicolas Poussin Rubens Rembrandt Zurbaran Canaletto Delacroix Monet Gauguin Van Gogh Cézanne Matisse Picasso Francis Bacon...) collections of sculptures drawings printings decorative arts Roman Greek antiquities second largest collection of Egyptian antiquities France after that of Louvre medal cabinet of 50.000 medals coinsThe Gallo-Roman Museum displaying many valuable objects artworks found site of Roman Lyon (Lugdunum) such Circus Games Mosaic Coligny calendar Taurobolic Altar. Median income Paris its nearest departments, Muslim (200,000) City Hall Place des Terreaux built architects Jules Hardouin-Mansart Robert de Cotte, Marseille second-largest city France after Paris centre of third-largest metropolitan area France after Paris Lyon east starting small fishing village of Callelongue outskirts of Marseille stretching far Cassis Calanques rugged coastal area interspersed with small fjord-like inlets Farther east still Sainte-Baume (a 1,147 m (3,763 ft) mountain ridge rising from forest of deciduous trees) city of Toulon French Riviera north of Marseille beyond low Garlaban Etoile mountain ranges 1,011 m (3,317 ft) Mont Sainte Victoire west of Marseille former artists' colony of l'Estaque farther west Côte Bleue Gulf of Lion Camargue region Rhône delta airport lies north west of city Marignane Étang de BerreMarseille Calanques National Park from ISS February 2017.