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France's highest courts located Paris Court of Cassation highest court judicial order which reviews criminal civil cases located Palais de Justice Île de la Cité, while Conseil d'État which provides legal advice executive acts highest court administrative order judging litigation against public bodies located Palais-Royal 1st arrondissementConstitutional Council advisory body with ultimate authority constitutionality of laws government decrees also meets Montpensier wing of Palais RoyalParis its region host headquarters of several international organisations including UNESCO Organisation Economic Co-operation Development International Chamber of Commerce Paris Club European Space Agency International Energy Agency Organisation internationale de la Francophonie European Union Institute Security Studies International Bureau of Weights Measures International Exhibition Bureau International Federation Human RightsFollowing motto Only Paris worthy of Rome only Rome worthy of Paris only sister city of Paris Rome although Paris has partnership agreements with many other cities around worldPolice force. Buddhist (3,000)Culture The Eiffel Tower La Défense disctrictThe economy of City of Paris based largely services commerce of 390,480 enterprises city 80.6 percent engaged commerce transportation diverse services 6.5 percent construction just 3.8 percent industrystory similar Paris Region (Île-de-France) 76.7 percent of enterprises engaged commerce services 3.4 percent industryAt 2012 census 59.5% of jobs Paris Region were market services (12.0% wholesale retail trade 9.7% professional scientific technical services 6.5% information communication 6.5% transportation warehousing 5.9% finance insurance 5.8% administrative support services 4.6% accommodation food services 8.5% various other market services) 26.9% non-market services (10.4% human health social work activities 9.6% public administration defence 6.9% education) 8.2% manufacturing utilities (6.6% manufacturing 1.5% utilities) 5.2% construction 0.2% agricultureThe Paris Region had 5.4 million salaried employees 2010 of whom 2.2 million were concentrated 39 pôles d'emplois or business districts largest of these terms of number of employees known French QCA or quartier central des affaires western part of City of Paris 2nd 8th 9th 16th 18th arrondissements 2010 was workplace of 500,000 salaried employees about 30 percent of salaried employees Paris 10 percent of those Île-de-France largest sectors of activity central business district were finance insurance (16 percent of employees district) business services (15 percent) district also includes large concentration of department stores shopping areas hotels restaurants well government offices ministriesThe second-largest business district terms of employment La Défense just west of city where many companies installed their offices 1990s 2010 was workplace of 144,600 employees of whom 38 percent worked finance insurance 16 percent business support services Two other important districts Neuilly-sur-Seine Levallois-Perret extensions of Paris business district of La Défense Another district including Boulogne-Billancourt Issy-les-Moulineaux southern part of 15th arrondissement centre of activity media information technologyThe top ten French companies listed Fortune Global 500 2018 all have their headquarters Paris Region six central business district of City of Paris four close city Hauts-de-Seine Department three La Défense one Boulogne-Billancourt Some companies like Société Générale have offices both Paris La DéfenseThe Paris Region France's leading region economic activity with GDP of €681 billion (~US$850 billion) €56,000 (~US$70,000) per capita2011 its GDP ranked second among regions of Europe its per-capita GDP was 4th highest Europe While Paris region's population accounted 18.8 percent of metropolitan France 2011, Paris region's GDP accounted 30 percent of metropolitan France's GDPThe Paris Region economy has gradually shifted from industry high-value-added service industries (finance services) high-tech manufacturing (electronics optics aerospace etc.)Paris region's most intense economic activity through central Hauts-de-Seine department suburban La Défense business district places Paris's economic centre west of city triangle between Opéra Garnier La Défense Val de Seine While Paris economy dominated services employment manufacturing sector has declined sharply region remains important manufacturing centre particularly aeronautics automobiles eco industriesIn 2017 worldwide cost of living survey Economist Intelligence Unit based survey made September 2016 Paris ranked seventh most expensive city world second most expensive Europe after ZurichEmployment, As far French intelligence units concerned Directorate-General External Security (Direction générale de la sécurité extérieure) considered be component of Armed Forces under authority of Ministry of Defence other Central Directorate Interior Intelligence (Direction centrale du renseignement intérieur) division of National Police Force (Direction générale de la Police Nationale) therefore reports directly Ministry of Interior There has been no national conscription since 1997France has special military corps French Foreign Legion founded 1830 which consists of foreign nationals from over 140 countries who willing serve French Armed Forces become French citizens after end of their service period only other countries having similar units Spain (the Spanish Foreign Legion called Tercio was founded 1920) Luxembourg (foreigners can serve National Army provided they speak Luxembourgish)France permanent member of Security Council of UN recognised nuclear state since 1960 France has signed ratified Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) acceded Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty France's annual military expenditure 2011 was US$62.5 billion or 2.3% of its GDP making fifth biggest military spender world after United States China Russia United KingdomFrench nuclear deterrence (formerly known Force de Frappe) relies complete independence current French nuclear force consists of four Triomphant class submarines equipped with submarine-launched ballistic missiles addition submarine fleet estimated that France has about 60 ASMP medium-range air-to-ground missiles with nuclear warheads, of which around 50 deployed Air Force using Mirage 2000N long-range nuclear strike aircraft while around 10 deployed French Navy's Super Étendard Modernisé (SEM) attack aircraft which operate from nuclear-powered aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle new Rafale F3 aircraft will gradually replace all Mirage 2000N SEM nuclear strike role with improved ASMP-A missile with nuclear warheadFrance has major military industries with one of largest aerospace industries world Its industries have produced such equipment Rafale fighter Charles de Gaulle aircraft carrier Exocet missile Leclerc tank among others Despite withdrawing from Eurofighter project France actively investing European joint projects such Eurocopter Tiger multipurpose frigates UCAV demonstrator nEUROn Airbus A400M France major arms seller, with most of its arsenal's designs available export market with notable exception of nuclear-powered devicesThe Bastille Day military parade held Paris each 14 July France's national day called Bastille Day English-speaking countries (referred France Fête nationale) oldest largest regular military parade Europe Other smaller parades organised across countryGovernment finance, Main article Parks Lyon Val de LoirePays de la Loire. Opéra Garnier Paris symbol of French Second Empire style In first trimester of 2018 unemployment rate city of Paris was 7.1 percent provisional unemployment rate whole Paris Region was higher 8.0 percent considerably higher some suburbs notably Department of Seine-Saint-Denis east (11.8 percent) Val-d'Oise north (8.2 percent)Incomes, In addition two Centre de la Vieille Charité described above main museums are. The many Renaissance hôtels particuliers of Old Lyon quarter such Hôtel de Bullioud were also built Philibert Delorme17th 18th centuries Lyon background with Fourvière left! The earliest French literature dates from Middle Ages when what now known modern France did not have single uniform language There were several languages dialects writers used their own spelling grammar Some authors of French mediaeval texts unknown such Tristan Iseult Lancelot-Grail Other authors known example Chrétien de Troyes Duke William IX of Aquitaine who wrote OccitanMuch medieval French poetry literature were inspired legends of Matter of France such Song of Roland various chansons de geste Roman de Renart written 1175 Perrout de Saint Cloude tells story of mediaeval character Reynard ('the Fox') another example of early French writing important 16th-century writer was François Rabelais whose novel Gargantua Pantagruel has remained famous appreciated until now Michel de Montaigne was other major figure of French literature during that century His most famous work Essais created literary genre of essay French poetry during that century was embodied Pierre de Ronsard Joachim du Bellay Both writers founded La Pléiade literary movementDuring 17th century Madame de La Fayette published anonymously La Princesse de Clèves novel that considered be one of very first psychological novels of all times Jean de La Fontaine one of most famous fabulists of that time he wrote hundreds of fables some being far more famous than others such Ant Grasshopper Generations of French pupils had learn his fables that were seen helping teaching wisdom common sense young people Some of his verses have entered popular language become proverbs such À l'œuvre connaît l'artisan.[A workman known his chips]see description. Charles de Gaulle took active part many major events of 20th century hero of World War I leader of Free French during World War II he then became President where he facilitated decolonisation maintained France major power overcame revolt of May 1968French-marked USAF C-119 flown CIA pilots over Dien Bien Phu 1954, color map showing Regional natural parks of France, Twin towns partner cities A central hub of national rail network Paris's six major railway stations (Gare du Nord Gare de l'Est Gare de Lyon Gare d'Austerlitz Gare Montparnasse Gare Saint-Lazare) minor one (Gare de Bercy) connected three networks TGV serving four high-speed rail lines normal speed Corail trains suburban rails (Transilien)Métro RER tramway.
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