Main article Tourism France, Tour Oxygène La Mouche Cattle Market Abbatoir (1914 1928) designed Tony Garnier Musée des Automates museum of automated puppets Vieux Lyon open since 1991Parks gardens. Marseille television The Louvre Université Claude Bernard (Lyon 1), Lyon has long chronicled culinary arts tradition noted food critic Curnonsky referred city the gastronomic capital of world, claim repeated later writers such Bill Buford Renowned 3-star Michelin chefs such Marie Bourgeois Eugénie Brazier developed Lyonnaise cuisine into national phenomenon favoured French elite tradition which Paul Bocuse later turned into worldwide successThe bouchon traditional Lyonnais restaurant that serves local fare such sausages duck pâté or roast pork along with local wines Two of France's best known wine-growing regions located near city Beaujolais region north Côtes du Rhône region south Another Lyon tradition type of brunch food called mâchons made of local charcuterie usually accompanied Beaujolais red wine Mâchons were customary meal of canuts city's silk workers who ate late-morning meal after they finished their shifts factoriesOther traditional local dishes include coq au vin quenelle gras double salade lyonnaise (lettuce with bacon croûtons poached egg) sausage-based rosette lyonnaise andouillette Popular local confections include marron glacé coussin de Lyon Cervelle de canut (literally silk worker's brains) cheese spread/dip made of base of fromage blanc seasoned with chopped herbs shallots salt pepper olive oil vinegarSport, The Paris Catacombs hold remains of approximately 6 million peopleIn Paris's Roman era its main cemetery was located outskirts of Left Bank settlement but this changed with rise of Catholicism where most every inner-city church had adjoining burial grounds use their parishes With Paris's growth many of these particularly city's largest cemetery les Innocents were filled overflowing creating quite unsanitary conditions capital When inner-city burials were condemned from 1786 contents of all Paris's parish cemeteries were transferred renovated section of Paris's stone mines outside Porte d'Enfer city gate today place Denfert-Rochereau 14th arrondissementprocess of moving bones from Cimetière des Innocents catacombs took place between 1786 1814 part of network of tunnels remains can be visited today official tour of catacombsAfter tentative creation of several smaller suburban cemeteries Prefect Nicholas Frochot under Napoleon Bonaparte provided more definitive solution creation of three massive Parisian cemeteries outside city limits Open from 1804 these were cemeteries of Père Lachaise Montmartre Montparnasse later Passy these cemeteries became inner-city once again when Paris annexed all neighbouring communes inside of its much larger ring of suburban fortifications 1860 New suburban cemeteries were created early 20th century largest of these Cimetière parisien de Saint-Ouen Cimetière parisien de Pantin (also known Cimetière parisien de Pantin-Bobigny) Cimetière parisien d'Ivry Cimetière parisien de Bagneux Some of most famous people world buried Parisian cemeteriesHealthcare. A view of Seine Île de la Cité Bateau Mouche, See also Transportation Marseille In addition 18 regions 101 departments French Republic has five overseas collectivities (French Polynesia Saint Barthélemy Saint Martin Saint Pierre Miquelon Wallis Futuna) one sui generis collectivity (New Caledonia) one overseas territory (French Southern Antarctic Lands) one island possession Pacific Ocean (Clipperton Island)Overseas collectivities territories form part of French Republic but do not form part of European Union or its fiscal area (with exception of St Bartelemy which seceded from Guadeloupe 2007) Pacific Collectivities (COMs) of French Polynesia Wallis Futuna New Caledonia continue use CFP franc whose value strictly linked that of euro contrast five overseas regions used French franc now use eurodiagram of overseas territories of France showing map shapes, Bourgogne- See also Paris Belle Époque Paris during First World War Paris between Wars (1919–1939) Paris World War II History of Paris (1946–2000); Color map showing Regional natural parks of France, The Historic Site of Lyon was designated UNESCO World Heritage Site 1998 its designation UNESCO cited exceptional testimony continuity of urban settlement over more than two millennia site of great commercial strategic significancespecific regions comprising Historic Site include Roman district Fourvière Renaissance district (Vieux Lyon) silk district (slopes of Croix-Rousse) Presqu'île which features architecture from 12th century modern times Both Vieux Lyon slopes of Croix-Rousse known their narrow passageways (named traboules) that pass through buildings link streets either side first examples of traboules thought have been built Lyon 4th centurytraboules allowed inhabitants get from their homes Saône quickly allowed canuts Croix-Rousse hill get from their workshops textile merchants foot of hillGastronomy, France uses civil legal system that is law arises primarily from written statutes judges not make law but merely interpret (though amount of judicial interpretation certain areas makes equivalent case law) Basic principles of rule of law were laid Napoleonic Code (which was turn largely based royal law codified under Louis XIV) agreement with principles of Declaration of Rights of Man of Citizen law should only prohibit actions detrimental society Guy Canivet first president of Court of Cassation wrote about management of prisons Freedom rule its restriction exception any restriction of Freedom must be provided Law must follow principles of necessity proportionality That is Law should lay out prohibitions only if they needed if inconveniences caused this restriction do not exceed inconveniences that prohibition supposed remedycolor drawing of Declaration of Rights of Man of Citizen from 1789. The inventor Nicéphore Niépce produced first permanent photograph polished pewter plate Paris 1825 1839 after death of Niépce Louis Daguerre patented Daguerrotype which became most common form of photography until 1860s work of Étienne-Jules Marey 1880s contributed considerably development of modern photography Photography came occupy central role Parisian Surrealist activity works of Man Ray Maurice Tabard Numerous photographers achieved renown their photography of Paris including Eugène Atget noted his depictions of street scenes Robert Doisneau noted his playful pictures of people market scenes (among which Le baiser de l'hôtel de ville has become iconic of romantic vision of Paris) Marcel Bovis noted his night scenes others such Jacques-Henri Lartigue Cartier-Bresson Poster art also became important art form Paris late nineteenth century through work of Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec Jules Chéret Eugène Grasset Adolphe Willette Pierre Bonnard Georges de Feure Henri-Gabriel Ibels Gavarni Alphonse MuchaMuseums. Originally applied whole Frankish Empire name France comes from Latin Francia or country of Franks Modern France still named today Francia Italian Spanish Frankreich (Frankish Empire) German Frankrijk Dutch all of which have more or less same historical meaningThere various theories origin of name Frank Following precedents of Edward Gibbon Jacob Grimm, name of Franks has been linked with word frank (free) Englishhas been suggested that meaning of free was adopted because after conquest of Gaul only Franks were free of taxation Another theory that derived from Proto-Germanic word frankon which translates javelin or lance throwing axe of Franks was known francisca However has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use Franks not other way aroundHistory, Main article Demographics of Paris; Main articles History of France § Napoleonic France (1799–1815) History of France § Long 19th century 1815–1914 First French Empire Second French Empire French colonial empire, The many Renaissance hôtels particuliers of Old Lyon quarter such Hôtel de Bullioud were also built Philibert Delorme17th 18th centuries, For centuries Paris has attracted artists from around world who arrive city educate themselves seek inspiration from its vast pool of artistic resources galleries result Paris has acquired reputation City of Art Italian artists were profound influence development of art Paris 16th 17th centuries particularly sculpture reliefs Painting sculpture became pride of French monarchy French royal family commissioned many Parisian artists adorn their palaces during French Baroque Classicism era Sculptors such Girardon Coysevox Coustou acquired reputations finest artists royal court 17th-century France Pierre Mignard became first painter King Louis XIV during this period 1648 Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture (Royal Academy of Painting Sculpture) was established accommodate dramatic interest art capital This served France's top art school until 1793Auguste Renoir Bal du moulin de la Galette 1876 oil canvas 131 cm × 175 cm (52 × 69 in) Musée d'Orsay.
Main article Lutetia Republican Guards parading Bastille Day Political majority each sector since 2014 René Descartes founder of modern philosophyFrench philosophers produced some of most important political works of Age of Enlightenment Spirit of Laws Baron de Montesquieu theorised principle of separation of powers which has been implemented all liberal democracies since was first applied United States Voltaire came embody Enlightenment with his defence of civil liberties such right free trial freedom of religion19th-century French thought was targeted responding social malaise following French Revolution Rationalist philosophers such Victor Cousin Auguste Comte who called new social doctrine were opposed reactionary thinkers such Joseph de Maistre Louis de Bonald Félicité Robert de Lamennais who blamed rationalist rejection of traditional order De Maistre considered together with Englishman Edmund Burke one of founders of European conservatism while Comte regarded founder of positivism which Émile Durkheim reformulated basis social researchIn 20th century partly reaction perceived excesses of positivism French spiritualism thrived with thinkers such Henri Bergson influenced American pragmatism Whitehead's version of process philosophy Meanwhile French epistemology became prominent school of thought with Jules Henri Poincaré Gaston Bachelard Jean Cavaillès Jules Vuillemin Influenced German phenomenology existentialism philosophy of Jean-Paul Sartre gained strong influence after World War II late-20th-century-France became craddle of postmodern philosophy with Jean-François Lyotard Jean Baudrillard Jacques Derrida Michel FoucaultMusic. The population of Paris had dropped 100,000 during Revolution but between 1799 1815 surged with 160,000 new residents reaching 660,000 Napoleon Bonaparte replaced elected government of Paris with prefect reporting only him He began erecting monuments military glory including Arc de Triomphe improved neglected infrastructure of city with new fountains Canal de l'Ourcq Père Lachaise Cemetery city's first metal bridge Pont des ArtsRichelieu reading room National Library of France, Main article Administrative divisions of France Religion France (2016) Marseille has been setting many films mostly produced France or Hollywood Taxi 4 was filmed Marseille (2007).