Medieval philosophy was dominated Scholasticism until emergence of Humanism Renaissance Modern philosophy began France 17th century with philosophy of René Descartes Blaise Pascal Nicolas Malebranche Descartes revitalised Western philosophy which had been declined after Greek Roman eras His Meditations First Philosophy changed primary object of philosophical thought raised some of most fundamental problems foreigners such Spinoza Leibniz Hume Berkeley KantFrans Hals painting of René Descartes facing right black coat white collar, Napoleon Emperor of French his Grande Armée built vast Empire across Europe His conquests spread French revolutionary ideals across much of Europe such popular sovereignty legal equality republicanism administrative reorganization while his legal reforms had major impact worldwide Nationalism especially Germany emerged reaction against himNapoleon Bonaparte seized control of Republic 1799 becoming First Consul later Emperor of French Empire (1804–1814 1815) continuation of wars sparked European monarchies against French Republic changing sets of European Coalitions declared wars Napoleon's Empire His armies conquered most of continental Europe with swift victories such battles of Jena-Auerstadt or Austerlitz Members of Bonaparte family were appointed monarchs some of newly established kingdoms These victories led worldwide expansion of French revolutionary ideals reforms such Metric system Napoleonic Code Declaration of Rights of Man After catastrophic Russian campaign ensuing uprising of European monarchies against his rule Napoleon was defeated Bourbon monarchy restored About million Frenchmen died during Napoleonic Wars After his brief return from exile Napoleon was finally defeated 1815 Battle of Waterloo monarchy was re-established (1815–1830) with new constitutional limitationsThe discredited Bourbon dynasty was overthrown July Revolution of 1830 which established constitutional July Monarchy that year French troops conquered Algeria establishing first colonial presence Africa since Napoleon's abortive invasion of Egypt 1798 According historian Ben Kiernan French conquest pacification of Algeria from 1830 until early twentieth century slaughtered 825,000 Algerian people French losses from 1831–51 were 92,329 dead hospital only 3,336 killed actionIn 1848 general unrest led February Revolution end of July Monarchy abolition of slavery male universal suffrage both briefly enacted during French Revolution were re-enacted 1848 1852 president of French Republic Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte Napoleon I's nephew was proclaimed emperor of second Empire Napoleon III He multiplied French interventions abroad especially Crimea Mexico Italy which resulted annexation of duchy of Savoy county of Nice then part of Kingdom of Sardinia Napoleon III was unseated following defeat Franco-Prussian War of 1870 his regime was replaced Third Republicanimated gif of French colonial territory world map. Median income Paris its nearest departments KEDGE Business School The Government of France has run budget deficit each year since early 1970s of 2016 French government debt levels reached 2.2 trillion euros equivalent of 96.4% of French GDPlate 2012 credit rating agencies warned that growing French Government debt levels risked France's AAA credit rating raising possibility of future downgrade subsequent higher borrowing costs French authoritiesEconomy.
France uses civil legal system that is law arises primarily from written statutes judges not make law but merely interpret (though amount of judicial interpretation certain areas makes equivalent case law) Basic principles of rule of law were laid Napoleonic Code (which was turn largely based royal law codified under Louis XIV) agreement with principles of Declaration of Rights of Man of Citizen law should only prohibit actions detrimental society Guy Canivet first president of Court of Cassation wrote about management of prisons Freedom rule its restriction exception any restriction of Freedom must be provided Law must follow principles of necessity proportionality That is Law should lay out prohibitions only if they needed if inconveniences caused this restriction do not exceed inconveniences that prohibition supposed remedycolor drawing of Declaration of Rights of Man of Citizen from 1789, See also List of most visited museums. The Paris Métro busiest subway network European UnionSince inauguration of its first line 1900 Paris's Métro (subway) network has grown become city's most widely used local transport system today carries about 5.23 million passengers daily through 16 lines 303 stations (385 stops) 220 km (136.7 mi) of rails Superimposed this 'regional express network' RER whose five lines (A B C D E) 257 stops 587 km (365 mi) of rails connect Paris more distant parts of urban areaOver €26.5 billion will be invested over next 15 years extend Métro network into suburbs, with notably Grand Paris Express projectIn addition Paris region served light rail network of nine lines tramway Line T1 runs from Asnières-Gennevilliers Noisy-le-Sec Line T2 runs from Pont de Bezons Porte de Versailles Line T3a runs from Pont du Garigliano Porte de Vincennes Line T3b runs from Porte de Vincennes Porte de la Chapelle Line T5 runs from Saint-Denis Garges-Sarcelles Line T6 runs from Châtillon Viroflay Line T7 runs from Villejuif Athis-Mons Line T8 runs from Saint-Denis Épinay-sur-Seine Villetaneuse all of which operated RATP Group, line T4 runs from Bondy RER Aulnay-sous-Bois which operated state rail carrier SNCF Five new light rail lines currently various stages of developmentAir, Main article French literature! Main article Geography of France, View of Petit Nice Marseille's corniche (7th arrondissement) with Frioul archipelago Château d'If background. Wesford Graduate Business School Sculpture of Marianne common national personification of French RepublicAccording BBC poll 2010 based 29,977 responses 28 countries France globally seen positive influence world's affairs 49% have positive view of country's influence whereas 19% have negative viewNation Brand Index of 2008 suggested that France has second best international reputation only behind Germanyglobal opinion poll BBC saw France ranked fourth most positively viewed nation world (behind Germany Canada United Kingdom) 2014According poll 2011 French were found have highest level of religious tolerance be country where highest proportion of population defines its identity primarily term of nationality not religionof 2011 75% of French had favourable view of United States making France one of most pro-American countries worldof 2017 favourable view of United States had dropped 46%January 2010 magazine International Living ranked France best country live in ahead of 193 other countries fifth year runningThe French Revolution continues permeate country's collective memory tricolour flag of France, anthem La Marseillaise motto Liberté égalité fraternité defined Title 1 of Constitution national symbols all emerged during cultural ferment of early revolution along with Marianne common national personification addition Bastille Day national holiday commemorates storming of Bastille 14 July 1789A common traditional symbol of French people Gallic rooster Its origins date back Antiquity since Latin word Gallus meant both rooster inhabitant of Gaul Then this figure gradually became most widely shared representation of French used French monarchs then Revolution under successive republican regimes representation of national identity used some stamps coinsCuisine.