Rue de Rivoli, France has long varied musical history experienced golden age 17th century thanks Louis XIV who employed number of talented musicians composers royal court most renowned composers of this period include Marc-Antoine Charpentier François Couperin Michel-Richard Delalande Jean-Baptiste Lully Marin Marais all of them composers court After death of Roi Soleil French musical creation lost dynamism but next century music of Jean-Philippe Rameau reached some prestige today he still one of most renowned French composers Rameau became dominant composer of French opera leading French composer harpsichord.[full citation needed], As capital of France Paris seat of France's national government executive two chief officers each have their own official residences which also serve their offices President of French Republic resides Élysée Palace 8th arrondissement, while Prime Minister's seat Hôtel Matignon 7th arrondissement Government ministries located various parts of city many located 7th arrondissement near MatignonThe two houses of French Parliament located Left Bank upper house Senate meets Palais du Luxembourg 6th arrondissement while more important lower house Assemblée Nationale meets Palais Bourbon 7th arrondissement President of Senate second-highest public official France (the President of Republic being sole superior) resides Petit Luxembourg smaller palace annexe Palais du LuxembourgThe Palais-Royal residence of Conseil d'État. In South America French GuianaIn Atlantic Ocean Saint Pierre Miquelon and Antilles Guadeloupe Martinique Saint Martin Saint BarthélemyIn Pacific Ocean French Polynesia special collectivity of New Caledonia Wallis Futuna Clipperton IslandIn Indian Ocean Réunion island Mayotte Kerguelen Islands Crozet Islands St Paul Amsterdam islands Scattered Islands Indian Ocean. The Paris region hosts France's highest concentration of grandes écoles – 55 specialised centres of higher-education outside public university structure prestigious public universities usually considered grands établissements Most of grandes écoles were relocated suburbs of Paris 1960s 1970s new campuses much larger than old campuses within crowded city of Paris though École Normale Supérieure has remained rue d'Ulm 5th arrondissement There high number of engineering schools led Paris Institute of Technology which comprises several colleges such École Polytechnique École des Mines AgroParisTech Télécom Paris Arts et Métiers École des Ponts et Chaussées There also many business schools including HEC INSEAD ESSEC ESCP Europe administrative school such ENA has been relocated Strasbourg political science school Sciences-Po still located Paris's 7th arrondissement most prestigious university of economics finance Paris-Dauphine located Paris's 16th Parisian school of journalism CELSA department of Paris-Sorbonne University located Neuilly-sur-Seine Paris also home several of France's most famous high-schools such Lycée Louis-le-Grand Lycée Henri-IV Lycée Janson de Sailly Lycée Condorcet National Institute of Sport Physical Education located 12th arrondissement both physical education institute high-level training centre elite athletesLibraries. Italy Rome Italy 1956 Anti-terrorism demonstration Place de la République after Charlie Hebdo shooting 11 January 2015 François Mitterrand Chancellor Helmut Kohl 24 September 1987 press conference with microphones.
Prehistory (before 6th century BC), France has close association with Modern Olympic Games was French aristocrat Baron Pierre de Coubertin who suggested Games' revival end of 19th century After Athens was awarded first Games reference Olympics' Greek origins Paris hosted second Games 1900 Paris was first home of International Olympic Committee before moved Lausanne Since 1900 France has hosted Olympics 4 further occasions 1924 Summer Olympics again Paris three Winter Games (1924 Chamonix 1968 Grenoble 1992 Albertville)Similar Olympics France introduced Olympics deaf people (Deaflympics) 1924 with idea of French deaf car mechanic Eugène Rubens-Alcais who paved way organise inaugural edition of Summer Deaflympics ParisZinedine Zidane was named best European footballer of past 50 years 2004 UEFA pollBoth national football team national rugby union team nicknamed Les Bleus reference team's shirt colour well national French tricolour flag Football most popular sport France with over 1,800,000 registered players over 18,000 registered clubsfootball team among most successful world with two FIFA World Cup victories 1998 2018, one FIFA World Cup second place 2006, two UEFA European Championships 1984 2000The top national football club competition Ligue 1 France has produced some of greatest players world including three time FIFA World Player of Year Zinedine Zidane three time Ballon d'Or recipient Michel Platini record holder most goals scored World Cup Just Fontaine first football player receive Légion d'honneur Raymond Kopa record goalscorer French national team Thierry Henrysoccer match Stade de France 1998 FIFA World Cup. A view of Seine Île de la Cité Bateau Mouche, Other Japanese supplementary schools [email protected] In recent years city has also experienced large growth service sector employment switch from light manufacturing cultural high-tech economy. Marseille region home thousands of companies 90% of which small medium enterprises with less than 500 employees.[full citation needed] Among most famous ones CMA CGM container-shipping giant Compagnie maritime d'expertises (Comex) world leader sub-sea engineering hydraulic systems Airbus Helicopters Airbus division Azur Promotel active real estate development company La Provence local daily newspaper RTM Marseille's public transport company Société Nationale Maritime Corse Méditerranée (SNCM) major operator passenger vehicle freight transportation Western Mediterranean urban operation Euroméditerranée has developed large offer of offices thus Marseille hosts one of main business district FranceMarseille home of three main technopoles Château-Gombert (technological innovations) Luminy (biotechnology) La Belle de Mai (17,000 sq.m of offices dedicated multimedia activities)Tourism attractions. Major religious communities Marseille include Musée d'art contemporain de Lyon contemporary art museum Hôtel national des Invalides For centuries Paris has attracted artists from around world who arrive city educate themselves seek inspiration from its vast pool of artistic resources galleries result Paris has acquired reputation City of Art Italian artists were profound influence development of art Paris 16th 17th centuries particularly sculpture reliefs Painting sculpture became pride of French monarchy French royal family commissioned many Parisian artists adorn their palaces during French Baroque Classicism era Sculptors such Girardon Coysevox Coustou acquired reputations finest artists royal court 17th-century France Pierre Mignard became first painter King Louis XIV during this period 1648 Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture (Royal Academy of Painting Sculpture) was established accommodate dramatic interest art capital This served France's top art school until 1793Auguste Renoir Bal du moulin de la Galette 1876 oil canvas 131 cm × 175 cm (52 × 69 in) Musée d'Orsay. Tour IncityMuseums Marseille major French centre trade industry with excellent transportation infrastructure (roads sea port airport) Marseille Provence Airport fourth largest France May 2005 French financial magazine L'Expansion named Marseille most dynamic of France's large cities citing figures showing that 7,200 companies had been created city since 2000 Marseille also France's second largest research centre with 3,000 research scientists within Aix Marseille University. of 2014 Marseille metropolitan area had GDP amounting $60.3 billion or $36,127 per capita (purchasing power parity)Port, The largest opera houses of Paris 19th-century Opéra Garnier (historical Paris Opéra) modern Opéra Bastille former tends toward more classic ballets operas latter provides mixed repertoire of classic modernmiddle of 19th century there were three other active competing opera houses Opéra-Comique (which still exists) Théâtre-Italien Théâtre Lyrique (which modern times changed its profile name Théâtre de la Ville) Philharmonie de Paris modern symphonic concert hall of Paris opened January 2015 Another musical landmark Théâtre des Champs-Élysées where first performances of Diaghilev's Ballets Russes took place 1913The Comédie Française (Salle Richelieu), Most French rulers since Middle Ages made point of leaving their mark city that contrary many other of world's capitals has never been destroyed catastrophe or war modernising its infrastructure through centuries Paris has preserved even its earliest history its street mapits origin before Middle Ages city was composed around several islands sandbanks bend of Seine of those two remain today île Saint-Louis île de la Cité third one 1827 artificially created île aux CygnesModern Paris owes much of its downtown plan architectural harmony Napoleon III his Prefect of Seine Baron Haussmann Between 1853 1870 they rebuilt city centre created wide downtown boulevards squares where boulevards intersected imposed standard facades along boulevards required that facades be built of distinctive cream-grey Paris stone They also built major parks around city centrehigh residential population of its city centre also makes much different from most other western major citiesParis's urbanism laws have been under strict control since early 17th century, particularly where street-front alignment building height building distribution concerned recent developments 1974–2010 building height limitation of 37 metres (121 ft) was raised 50 m (160 ft) central areas 180 metres (590 ft) some of Paris's peripheral quarters yet some of city's more central quarters even older building-height laws still remain effect210 metres (690 ft) Montparnasse tower was both Paris France's tallest building until 1973, but this record has been held La Défense quarter Tour First tower Courbevoie since its 2011 constructionParisian examples of European architecture date back more than millennium including Romanesque church of Abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés (1014–1163) early Gothic Architecture of Basilica of Saint-Denis (1144) Notre Dame Cathedral (1163–1345) Flamboyant Gothic of Saint Chapelle (1239–1248) Baroque churches of Saint-Paul-Saint-Louis (1627–1641) Les Invalides (1670–1708) 19th century produced neoclassical church of La Madeleine (1808–1842) Palais Garnier Opera House (1875) neo-Byzantine Basilica of Sacré-Cœur (1875–1919) exuberant Belle Époque modernism of Eiffel Tower (1889) Striking examples of 20th-century architecture include Centre Georges Pompidou Richard Rogers Renzo Piano (1977) Louvre Pyramid I M Pei (1989) Contemporary architecture includes Musée du quad Branly Jean Nouvel (2006) contemporary art museum of Louis Vuitton Foundation Frank Gehry (2014)., new Tribunal de Justice Renzo Piano (2018)Housing. Bouillabaisse most famous seafood dish of Marseille fish stew containing least three varieties of very fresh local fish typically red rascasse (Scorpaena scrofa) sea robin (fr grondin) European conger (fr congre)can include gilt-head bream (fr dorade) turbot monkfish (fr lotte or baudroie) mullet or silver hake (fr merlan) usually includes shellfish other seafood such sea urchins (fr oursins) mussels (fr moules) velvet crabs (fr étrilles) spider crab (fr araignées de mer) plus potatoes vegetables traditional version fish served platter separate from brothbroth served with rouille mayonnaise made with egg yolk olive oil red bell pepper saffron garlic spread pieces of toasted bread or croûtesMarseille bouillabaisse rarely made fewer than ten people more people who share meal more different fish that included better bouillabaisseAïoli sauce made from raw garlic lemon juice eggs olive oil served with boiled fish hard boiled eggs cooked vegetablesAnchoïade (fr) paste made from anchovies garlic olive oil spread bread or served with raw vegetablesBourride (fr) soup made with white fish (monkfish European sea bass whiting etc.) aïoliFougasse flat Provençal bread similar Italian focaccia traditionally baked wood oven sometimes filled with olives cheese or anchovies.. Main article Art Paris, La Vieille Charité History, Main article Law of France; Ambox current red.svg In 2017 Paris-Charles de Gaulle Airport was second-busiest airport Europe tenth-busiest airport worldParis major international air transport hub with 5th busiest airport system world city served three commercial international airports Paris-Charles de Gaulle Paris-Orly Beauvais-Tillé Together these three airports recorded traffic of 96.5 million passengers 2014 There also one general aviation airport Paris-Le Bourget historically oldest Parisian airport closest city centre which now used only private business flights air showsOrly Airport located southern suburbs of Paris replaced Le Bourget principal airport of Paris from 1950s 1980s Charles de Gaulle Airport located edge of northern suburbs of Paris opened commercial traffic 1974 became busiest Parisian airport 1993 year 2017 was 5th busiest airport world international traffic hub nation's flag carrier Air France Beauvais-Tillé Airport located 69 kilometres (43 miles) north of Paris's city centre used charter airlines low-cost carriers such RyanairDomestically air travel between Paris some of France's largest cities such Lyon Marseille or Strasbourg has been large measure replaced high-speed rail due opening of several high-speed TGV rail lines from 1980s example after LGV Méditerranée opened 2001 air traffic between Paris Marseille declined from 2,976,793 passengers 2000 1,502,196 passengers 2014 After LGV Est opened 2007 air traffic between Paris Strasbourg declined from 1,006,327 passengers 2006 157,207 passengers 2014Internationally air traffic has increased markedly recent years between Paris Gulf airports emerging nations of Africa Russia Turkey Portugal Italy mainland China whereas noticeable decline has been recorded between Paris British Isles Egypt Tunisia JapanMotorways. Main articles Francia Merovingian dynasty Carolingian dynasty, By 1901 population of Paris had grown 2,715,000 beginning of century artists from around world including Pablo Picasso Modigliani Henri Matisse made Paris their home was birthplace of Fauvism Cubism abstract art, authors such Marcel Proust were exploring new approaches literatureDuring First World War Paris sometimes found itself front line 600 1,000 Paris taxis played small but highly important symbolic role transporting 6,000 soldiers front line First Battle of Marne city was also bombed Zeppelins shelled German long-range guns years after war known Les Années Folles Paris continued be mecca writers musicians artists from around world including Ernest Hemingway Igor Stravinsky James Joyce Josephine Baker Sidney Bechet surrealist Salvador DalíIn years after peace conference city was also home growing numbers of students activists from French colonies other Asian African countries who later became leaders of their countries such Ho Chi Minh Zhou Enlai Léopold Sédar SenghorGeneral Charles de Gaulle Champs-Élysées celebrating liberation of Paris (26 August 1944)!