See also Urban area (France) Urban unit. Napoleon Emperor of French his Grande Armée built vast Empire across Europe His conquests spread French revolutionary ideals across much of Europe such popular sovereignty legal equality republicanism administrative reorganization while his legal reforms had major impact worldwide Nationalism especially Germany emerged reaction against himNapoleon Bonaparte seized control of Republic 1799 becoming First Consul later Emperor of French Empire (1804–1814 1815) continuation of wars sparked European monarchies against French Republic changing sets of European Coalitions declared wars Napoleon's Empire His armies conquered most of continental Europe with swift victories such battles of Jena-Auerstadt or Austerlitz Members of Bonaparte family were appointed monarchs some of newly established kingdoms These victories led worldwide expansion of French revolutionary ideals reforms such Metric system Napoleonic Code Declaration of Rights of Man After catastrophic Russian campaign ensuing uprising of European monarchies against his rule Napoleon was defeated Bourbon monarchy restored About million Frenchmen died during Napoleonic Wars After his brief return from exile Napoleon was finally defeated 1815 Battle of Waterloo monarchy was re-established (1815–1830) with new constitutional limitationsThe discredited Bourbon dynasty was overthrown July Revolution of 1830 which established constitutional July Monarchy that year French troops conquered Algeria establishing first colonial presence Africa since Napoleon's abortive invasion of Egypt 1798 According historian Ben Kiernan French conquest pacification of Algeria from 1830 until early twentieth century slaughtered 825,000 Algerian people French losses from 1831–51 were 92,329 dead hospital only 3,336 killed actionIn 1848 general unrest led February Revolution end of July Monarchy abolition of slavery male universal suffrage both briefly enacted during French Revolution were re-enacted 1848 1852 president of French Republic Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte Napoleon I's nephew was proclaimed emperor of second Empire Napoleon III He multiplied French interventions abroad especially Crimea Mexico Italy which resulted annexation of duchy of Savoy county of Nice then part of Kingdom of Sardinia Napoleon III was unseated following defeat Franco-Prussian War of 1870 his regime was replaced Third Republicanimated gif of French colonial territory world map.
Le Figaro was founded 1826 many of France's most prominent authors have written its columns over decades still considered newspaper of recordBest-selling daily national newspapers France Le Parisien Aujourd'hui en France (with 460,000 sold daily) Le Monde Le Figaro with around 300,000 copies sold daily but also L'Équipe dedicated sports coverage past years free dailies made breakthrough with Metro 20 Minutes Direct Plus distributed more than 650,000 copies respectively However widest circulations reached regional daily Ouest France with more than 750,000 copies sold 50 other regional papers have also high salessector of weekly magazines stronger diversified with more than 400 specialised weekly magazines published countryThe most influential news magazines left-wing Le Nouvel Observateur centrist L'Express right-wing Le Point (more than 400.000 copies), but highest circulation weeklies reached TV magazines women's magazines among them Marie Claire ELLE which have foreign versions Influential weeklies also include investigative satirical papers Le Canard Enchaîné Charlie Hebdo well Paris Match Like most industrialised nations print media have been affected severe crisis past decade 2008 government launched major initiative help sector reform become financially independent, but 2009 had give 600,000 euros help print media cope with economic crisis addition existing subsidiesIn 1974 after years of centralised monopoly radio television governmental agency ORTF was split into several national institutions but three already-existing TV channels four national radio stations remained under state-control was only 1981 that government allowed free broadcasting territory ending state monopoly radio French television was partly liberalised next two decade with creation of several commercial channels mainly thanks cable satellite television 2005 national service Télévision Numérique Terrestre introduced digital television all over territory allowing creation of other channelsThe four existing national channels now owned state-owned consortium France Télévisions while public broadcasting group Radio France run five national radio stations Among these public media Radio France Internationale which broadcasts programmes French all over world Franco-German TV channel TV5 Monde 2006 government created global news channel France 24 Long-established TV channels TF1 (privatised 1987) France 2 France 3 have highest shares while radio stations RTL Europe 1 state-owned France Inter least listened toSociety, francophone minorities, [icon] International regional transport Map of City of Lyon divided into 9 arrondissements. 8th arrondissement Monplaisir (south) Bachut États-Unis Grand Trou/Moulin à Vent Grange Blanche (south) Laënnec Mermoz Monplaisir-la-Plaine Main article Lyonnaise cuisine By end of 12th century Paris had become political economic religious cultural capital of FrancePalais de la Cité royal residence was located western end of Île de la Cité 1163 during reign of Louis VII Maurice de Sully bishop of Paris undertook construction of Notre Dame Cathedral its eastern extremityAfter marshland between river Seine its slower 'dead arm' its north was filled around 10th century, Paris's cultural centre began move Right Bank 1137 new city marketplace (today's Les Halles) replaced two smaller ones Île de la Cité Place de la Grève (Hotel de Ville)latter location housed headquarters of Paris's river trade corporation organisation that later became unofficially (although formally later years) Paris's first municipal governmentIn late 12th century Philip Augustus extended Louvre fortress defend city against river invasions from west gave city its first walls between 1190 1215 rebuilt its bridges either side of its central island paved its main thoroughfares1190 he transformed Paris's former cathedral school into student-teacher corporation that would become University of Paris would draw students from all of EuropeThe Palais de la Cité Sainte-Chapelle viewed from Left Bank from Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (month of June) (1410)! The port also important arrival base millions of people each year with 2.4 million including 890,100 from cruise ships With its beaches history architecture culture (24 museums 42 theatres) Marseille one of most visited cities France with 4.1 million visitors 2012 Marseille ranked 86th world business tourism events advancing from 150th spot one year before. number of congress days hosted its territory increased from 109,000 1996 almost 300,000 2011..