National Gendarmerie Main articles History of Marseille Timeline of Marseille Twin towns partner cities In addition classical restaurants Paris has several other kinds of traditional eating places café arrived Paris 17th century when beverage was first brought from Turkey 18th century Parisian cafés were centres of city's political cultural life Café Procope Left Bank dates from this period 20th century cafés of Left Bank especially Café de la Rotonde Le Dôme Café Montparnasse Café de Flore Les Deux Magots Boulevard Saint Germain all still business were important meeting places painters writers philosophersbistro type of eating place loosely defined neighbourhood restaurant with modest decor prices regular clientele congenial atmosphere Its name said have come 1814 from Russian soldiers who occupied city bistro means quickly Russian they wanted their meals served rapidly so they could get back their encampment Real bistros increasingly rare Paris due rising costs competition from cheaper ethnic restaurants different eating habits of Parisian dinersbrasserie originally was tavern located next brewery which served beer food any hour Beginning with Paris Exposition of 1867 became popular kind of restaurant which featured beer other beverages served young women national costume associated with beverage particular German costumes beer Now brasseries like cafés serve food drinks throughout dayFashion; Drawing of Storming of Bastille 14 July 1789 smoke of gunfire enveloping stone castle, Gare de Lyon Saint-Exupéry (1994) Santiago Calatrava, French census data does not contain information about religious affiliation According 2011 survey IFOP French public opinion research organisation 61 percent of residents of Paris Region (Île-de-France) identified themselves Roman Catholic though just 15 percent said they were practising Catholics while 46 percent were non-practicing same survey 7 percent of residents identified themselves Muslims 4 percent Protestants 2 percent Jewish 25 percent without religionAccording INSEE French government statistical office between 4 5 million French residents were born or had least one parent born predominantly Muslim country particularly Algeria Morocco Tunisia IFOP survey 2008 reported that of immigrants from these predominantly Muslim countries 25 percent went mosque regularly 41 percent practised religion 34 percent were believers but did not practice religion2012 2013 was estimated that there were almost 500,000 Muslims City of Paris 1.5 million Muslims Île-de-France region 4 5 million Muslims FranceThe Jewish population of Paris Region was estimated 2014 be 282,000 largest concentration of Jews world outside of Israel United StatesEconomy. Since Middle Ages residents of region have spoken several dialects of Franco-Provençal Lyonnais dialect was replaced French language importance of city grew However some frenchified Franco-Provençal words can also be heard French of Lyonnais who call their little boys girls gones fenottes exampleThe Lumière brothers pioneered cinema town 1895 Institut Lumière built Auguste Lumiere's house fascinating piece of architecture its own right holds many of their first inventions other early cinematic photographic artefacts8 December each year marked Festival of Lights (la Fête des lumières) celebration of thanks Virgin Mary who purportedly saved city from deadly plague Middle Ages During event local population places candles (lumignons) their windows city of Lyon organises impressive large-scale light shows onto sides of important Lyonnais monuments such mediaeval Cathédrale St-JeanThe church of Saint Francis of Sales famous its large unaltered Cavaillé-Coll pipe organ attracting audiences from around worldThe Opéra Nouvel (New Opera House) home of Opéra National de Lyon original opera house was re-designed distinguished French architect Jean Nouvel between 1985 1993 named after himLyon also French capital of trompe l'œil walls very ancient tradition Many be seen around city This old tradition now finding contemporary expression example art of Guillaume BottazziThe Brothers of Sacred Heart Roman Catholic congregation that operates schools Europe North America was founded Lyon 1821The African Museum of Lyon one of oldest museums situated LyonThe Museum of Resistance Deportation looks various individuals prominent Resistance movement World War II building strongly linked Klaus Barbie Lyon sees itself centre of French resistance many members were shot Place Bellecour town centre exhibition largely series of mini-biographies of those involvedThe unusual project Lyon Dubai City reproduction of some districts of Lyon Dubai major point tourism LyonLyon pilot city of Council of Europe European Commission Intercultural cities programmeUNESCO World Heritage Site. Tour de France pelleton 9 July 2005 begin of ascend Cote de Bad Herrenalb On 8 May 1945 while Liberation was celebrated France peaceful demonstrations Sétif eastern Algeria were violently repressed More than 40,000 Algerian fell victim shooting strafing from planes armed cars end of same month French bombarded Damascus killing hundredsbombardment of Haiphong 23 November 1946 killed about 6,000 Between March 1947 September 1948 electoral victory of proponents of independence Madagascar was followed savage repression French army (18,000 mostly Senegalese troops) resulting some 90,000 deaths Some 200 peaceful civilians demonstrating independence were killed (mostly Senegalese) French troops Casablanca Morocco April 7–8 1947Cameroon radical nationalist movement independence Union des Populations du Cameroun (UPC) was forced underground engaged guerrilla warfare against French administration ensuing repression of French army paramilitary forces (gendarmerie) took form during 1958–1960 of scorched-earth policy whereby entire villages of south-central western Cameroon Bassa Bamiléké areas were burned ground resulting between 60,000 100,000 deaths France attempted regain control of French Indochina but was defeated Viet Minh 1954 climactic Battle of Dien Bien Phu Estimates of number of Vietnamese military civilian casualties during war of independence from France range from 300,000 dead 300,000 wounded half million dead 1 million woundedOnly months later France faced another anti-colonialist conflict Algeria Torture illegal executions were perpetrated both sides debate over whether or not keep control of Algeria then home over one million European settlers, wracked country nearly led coup civil war1958 weak unstable Fourth Republic gave way Fifth Republic which included strengthened Presidency latter role Charles de Gaulle managed keep country together while taking steps end Algerian war Despite its military victory France granted independence Algerians war exacted heavy human toll among Algerian population resulted some 500,000 deaths 2,137,000 internally displaced Algeriansvestige of colonial empire French overseas departments territoriesIn context of Cold War de Gaulle pursued policy of national independence towards Western Eastern blocs this end he withdrew from NATO's military integrated command he launched nuclear development programme made France fourth nuclear power He restored cordial Franco-German relations order create European counterweight between American Soviet spheres of influence However he opposed any development of supranational Europe favouring Europe of sovereign nations wake of series of worldwide protests of 1968 revolt of May 1968 had enormous social impact France considered be watershed moment when conservative moral ideal (religion patriotism respect authority) shifted towards more liberal moral ideal (secularism individualism sexual revolution) Although revolt was political failure (as Gaullist party emerged even stronger than before) announced split between French people de Gaulle who resigned shortly afterIn post-Gaullist era France remained one of most developed economies world but faced several economic crises that resulted high unemployment rates increasing public debt late 20th early 21st centuries France has been forefront of development of supranational European Union notably signing Maastricht Treaty (which created European Union) 1992 establishing Eurozone 1999 signing Lisbon Treaty 2007 France has also gradually but fully reintegrated into NATO has since participated most NATO sponsored warsPlace de la République statue column with large French flag; Parc de la Tête d'or (literally Golden Head Park) central Lyon largest urban park France 117 hectares Located 6th arrondissement features large lake which boating takes place during summer monthsJardin botanique de Lyon (8 hectares) included Parc de la Tête d'Or municipal botanical garden open weekdays without charge garden was established 1857 successor earlier botanical gardens dating 1796 now describes itself France's largest municipal botanical gardenParc de Gerland south of city (80 hectares), France secular country freedom of religion constitutional right French religious policy based concept of laïcité strict separation of church state under which public life kept completely secularAccording survey held 2016 Institut Montaigne Institut français d'opinion publique (IFOP) 51.1% of total population of France was Christian of that year same time 39.6% of population had no religion (atheism or agnosticism) 5.6% were Muslims 2.5% were followers of other faiths remaining 0.4% were undecided about their faith Estimates of number of Muslims France vary widely 2003 French Ministry of Interior estimated total number of people of Muslim background be between 5 6 million (8–10%)current Jewish community France (as of 2016 about 0.8% of population religious Jews) largest Europe third-largest world after those Israel United StatesNotre-Dame de Reims façade gothic stone cathedral against blue sky. OccitanieProvence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur Italy Rome Italy 1956, Seule Paris est digne de Rome seule Rome est digne de Paris (in French), Twin towns partner cities IDRAC (International School of Management). Bouillabaisse most famous seafood dish of Marseille fish stew containing least three varieties of very fresh local fish typically red rascasse (Scorpaena scrofa) sea robin (fr grondin) European conger (fr congre)can include gilt-head bream (fr dorade) turbot monkfish (fr lotte or baudroie) mullet or silver hake (fr merlan) usually includes shellfish other seafood such sea urchins (fr oursins) mussels (fr moules) velvet crabs (fr étrilles) spider crab (fr araignées de mer) plus potatoes vegetables traditional version fish served platter separate from brothbroth served with rouille mayonnaise made with egg yolk olive oil red bell pepper saffron garlic spread pieces of toasted bread or croûtesMarseille bouillabaisse rarely made fewer than ten people more people who share meal more different fish that included better bouillabaisseAïoli sauce made from raw garlic lemon juice eggs olive oil served with boiled fish hard boiled eggs cooked vegetablesAnchoïade (fr) paste made from anchovies garlic olive oil spread bread or served with raw vegetablesBourride (fr) soup made with white fish (monkfish European sea bass whiting etc.) aïoliFougasse flat Provençal bread similar Italian focaccia traditionally baked wood oven sometimes filled with olives cheese or anchovies.. The National University Library campus of University of StrasbourgIn 1802 Napoleon created lycée Nevertheless Jules Ferry who considered be father of French modern school which free secular compulsory until age of 13 since 1882 (school attendance France now compulsory until age of 16)Nowadays schooling system France centralised composed of three stages primary education secondary education higher education Programme International Student Assessment coordinated OECD ranked France's education about OECD average 2015 Primary secondary education predominantly public run Ministry of National Education France education compulsory from six sixteen years old public school secular free While training remuneration of teachers curriculum responsibility of state centrally management of primary secondary schools overseen local authorities Primary education comprises two phases nursery school (école maternelle) elementary school (école élémentaire) Nursery school aims stimulate minds of very young children promote their socialisation development of basic grasp of language number Around age of six children transfer elementary school whose primary objectives learning about writing arithmetic citizenship Secondary education also consists of two phases first delivered through colleges (collège) leads national certificate (Diplôme national du brevet) second offered high schools (lycée) finishes national exams leading baccalaureate (baccalauréat available professional technical or general flavours) or certificate of professional competence (certificat d'aptitude professionelle)Higher education divided between public universities prestigious selective Grandes écoles such Sciences Po Paris Political studies HEC Paris Economics Polytechnique École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris that produce high-profile engineers or École nationale d'administration careers Grands Corps of state Grandes écoles have been criticised alleged elitism they have produced many if not most of France's high-ranking civil servants CEOs politiciansSince higher education funded state fees very low tuition fees vary from €150 €700 depending university different levels of education (licence master doctorate) One can therefore get master's degree (in 5 years) about €750–3,500 tuition fees public engineering schools comparable universities albeit little higher (around €700) However they can reach €7000 year private engineering schools while business schools which all private or partially private charge up €15000 year Health insurance students free until age of 20Culture, National Gendarmerie Further information Energy France, See also List of railway stations Paris.
Painting sculpture The Paris Métro busiest subway network European UnionSince inauguration of its first line 1900 Paris's Métro (subway) network has grown become city's most widely used local transport system today carries about 5.23 million passengers daily through 16 lines 303 stations (385 stops) 220 km (136.7 mi) of rails Superimposed this 'regional express network' RER whose five lines (A B C D E) 257 stops 587 km (365 mi) of rails connect Paris more distant parts of urban areaOver €26.5 billion will be invested over next 15 years extend Métro network into suburbs, with notably Grand Paris Express projectIn addition Paris region served light rail network of nine lines tramway Line T1 runs from Asnières-Gennevilliers Noisy-le-Sec Line T2 runs from Pont de Bezons Porte de Versailles Line T3a runs from Pont du Garigliano Porte de Vincennes Line T3b runs from Porte de Vincennes Porte de la Chapelle Line T5 runs from Saint-Denis Garges-Sarcelles Line T6 runs from Châtillon Viroflay Line T7 runs from Villejuif Athis-Mons Line T8 runs from Saint-Denis Épinay-sur-Seine Villetaneuse all of which operated RATP Group, line T4 runs from Bondy RER Aulnay-sous-Bois which operated state rail carrier SNCF Five new light rail lines currently various stages of developmentAir. Temple du Change (17th 18th century) former stock exchange of Lyon Protestant temple since 18th century, See also List of French monarchs France Middle Ages. The main French research bodies including CNRS INSERM INRA all well represented Marseille Scientific research concentrated several sites across city including Luminy where there institutes developmental biology (the IBDML) immunology (CIML) marine sciences neurobiology (INMED) CNRS Joseph Aiguier campus (a world-renowned institute of molecular environmental microbiology) Timone hospital site (known work medical microbiology) Marseille also home headquarters of IRD which promotes research into questions affecting developing countriesTransport.