Chanel's headquarters Place Vendôme ParisFashion has been important industry cultural export of France since 17th century modern haute couture originated Paris 1860s Today Paris along with London Milan New York City considered one of world's fashion capitals city home or headquarters many of premier fashion houses expression Haute couture is France legally protected name guaranteeing certain quality standardsThe association of France with fashion style (French la mode) dates largely reign of Louis XIV when luxury goods industries France came increasingly under royal control French royal court became arguably arbiter of taste style Europe But France renewed its dominance of high fashion (French couture or haute couture) industry years 1860–1960 through establishing of great couturier houses such Chanel Dior Givenchy French perfume industry world leader its sector centered town of GrasseIn 1960s elitist Haute couture came under criticism from France's youth culture 1966 designer Yves Saint Laurent broke with established Haute Couture norms launching prêt-à-porter (ready wear) line expanding French fashion into mass manufacturing With greater focus marketing manufacturing new trends were established Sonia Rykiel Thierry Mugler Claude Montana Jean-Paul Gaultier Christian Lacroix 1970s 1980s 1990s saw conglomeration of many French couture houses under luxury giants multinationals such LVMHMedia. A view of Seine Île de la Cité Bateau Mouche Marseille was originally founded circa 600 BC Greek colony of Massalia populated settlers from Phocaea (modern Foça Turkey) became preeminent Greek polis Hellenized region of southern Gaul city-state sided with Roman Republic against Carthage during Second Punic War (218-201 BC) retaining its independence commercial empire throughout western Mediterranean even Rome expanded into Western Europe North Africa However city lost its independence following Roman Siege of Massilia 49 BC during Caesar's Civil War which Massalia sided with exiled faction war with Julius CaesarMarseille continued prosper Roman city becoming early center of Christianity during Western Roman Empire city maintained its position premier maritime trading hub even after its capture Visigoths 5th century AD although city went into decline following sack of 739 AD forces of Charles Martel became part of County of Provence during 10th century although its renewed prosperity was curtailed Black Death of 14th century sack of city Crown of Aragon 1423 city's fortunes rebounded with ambitious building projects of René of Anjou Count of Provence who strengthened city's fortifications during mid-15th century During 16th century city hosted naval fleet with combined forces of Franco-Ottoman alliance which threatened ports navies of Genoa Holy Roman EmpireMarseille lost significant portion of its population during Great Plague of Marseille 1720 but population had recovered mid century 1792 city became focal point of French Revolution was birthplace of France's national anthem La Marseillaise Industrial Revolution establishment of French Empire during 19th century allowed further expansion of city although was occupied German Wehrmacht November 1942 subsequently heavily damaged during World War II city has since become major center immigrant communities from former French colonies such French AlgeriaEconomy. 3rd arrondissement Guillotière (north) Préfecture Part-Dieu Villette Dauphiné/Sans Souci Montchat Grange Blanche (north) Monplaisir (north), Paris has typical Western European oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification Cfb) which affected North Atlantic Current overall climate throughout year mild moderately wet Summer days usually warm pleasant with average temperatures between 15 25 °C (59 77 °F) fair amount of sunshine Each year however there few days when temperature rises above 32 °C (90 °F) Longer periods of more intense heat sometimes occur such heat wave of 2003 when temperatures exceeded 30 °C (86 °F) weeks reached 40 °C (104 °F) some days seldom cooled down night Spring autumn have average mild days fresh nights but changing unstable Surprisingly warm or cool weather occurs frequently both seasonswinter sunshine scarce days cool nights cold but generally above freezing with low temperatures around 3 °C (37 °F) Light night frosts however quite common but temperature will dip below −5 °C (23 °F) only few days year Snow falls every year but rarely stays ground city sometimes sees light snow or flurries with or without accumulationParis has average annual precipitation of 641 mm (25.2 in) experiences light rainfall distributed evenly throughout year However city known intermittent abrupt heavy showers highest recorded temperature 40.4 °C (104.7 °F) 28 July 1947 lowest −23.9 °C (−11.0 °F) 10 December 1879Climate data Paris (Parc Montsouris) 1981–2010 averages extremes 1872–present. Main article Prehistory of France Bastille Day military parade Marseille 2012, Hollywood-style Marseille sign Main article Art Paris.
France part of monetary union Eurozone (dark blue) of European Single MarketA member of Group of Seven (formerly Group of Eight) leading industrialised countries of 2014 ranked world's ninth largest EU's second largest economy purchasing power parity With 31 of 500 biggest companies world 2015 France ranks fourth Fortune Global 500 ahead of Germany UK France joined 11 other EU members launch euro 1999 with euro coins banknotes completely replacing French franc (₣) 2002France has mixed economy that combines extensive private enterprise with substantial state enterprise government intervention government retains considerable influence over key segments of infrastructure sectors with majority ownership of railway electricity aircraft nuclear power telecommunications.[not citation given] has been relaxing its control over these sectors since early 1990s.[not citation given] government slowly corporatising state sector selling off holdings France Télécom Air France well insurance banking defence industries.[not citation given] France has important aerospace industry led European consortium Airbus has its own national spaceport Centre Spatial GuyanaisComposition of French economy (GDP) 2016 expenditure type, Tour Eiffel sunrise from trocadero The port also important arrival base millions of people each year with 2.4 million including 890,100 from cruise ships With its beaches history architecture culture (24 museums 42 theatres) Marseille one of most visited cities France with 4.1 million visitors 2012 Marseille ranked 86th world business tourism events advancing from 150th spot one year before. number of congress days hosted its territory increased from 109,000 1996 almost 300,000 2011.. FranceNormandy The basic principles that French Republic must respect found 1789 Declaration of Rights of Man of CitizenFrench law divided into two principal areas private law public law Private law includes particular civil law criminal law Public law includes particular administrative law constitutional law However practical terms French law comprises three principal areas of law civil law criminal law administrative law Criminal laws can only address future not past (criminal ex post facto laws prohibited) While administrative law often subcategory of civil law many countries completely separated France each body of law headed specific supreme court ordinary courts (which handle criminal civil litigation) headed Court of Cassation administrative courts headed Council of StateTo be applicable every law must be officially published Journal officiel de la République françaiseFrance does not recognise religious law motivation enactment of prohibitions France has long had neither blasphemy laws nor sodomy laws (the latter being abolished 1791) However offences against public decency (contraires aux bonnes mœurs) or disturbing public order (trouble à l'ordre public) have been used repress public expressions of homosexuality or street prostitution Since 1999 civil unions homosexual couples permitted since May 2013 same-sex marriage LGBT adoption legal France Laws prohibiting discriminatory speech press old 1881 Some consider however that hate speech laws France too broad or severe damage freedom of speech France has laws against racism antisemitism Since 1990 Gayssot Act prohibits Holocaust denialFreedom of religion constitutionally guaranteed 1789 Declaration of Rights of Man of Citizen 1905 French law Separation of Churches State basis laïcité (state secularism) state does not formally recognize any religion except Alsace-Moselle Nonetheless does recognize religious associations Parliament has listed many religious movements dangerous cults since 1995 has banned wearing conspicuous religious symbols schools since 2004 2010 banned wearing of face-covering Islamic veils public human rights groups such Amnesty International Human Rights Watch described law discriminatory towards Muslims However supported most of populationForeign relations, Main article French cuisine France highly urbanized country with its largest cities (in terms of metropolitan area population 2013) being Paris (12,405,426 inh.) Lyon (2,237,676) Marseille (1,734,277) Toulouse (1,291,517) Bordeaux (1,178,335) Lille (1,175,828) Nice (1,004,826) Nantes (908,815) Strasbourg (773,447) Rennes (700,675) (Note There significant differences between metropolitan population figures just cited those following table which only include core population) Rural flight was perennial political issue throughout most of 20th centuryFunctional urban areas. Main articles French Renaissance (c 1400–c 1650) Early modern France (1500–1789) French Wars of Religion (1562–1598) Ancien Régime (c 1400–1792). Administrative language, Christianity (51.1%) 9th arrondissement Vaise Duchère Rochecardon St-Rambert-l'Île-Barbe Gorge de Loup Observance Champvert (north). Palais du Pharo Agence France-Presse Headquarters Paris École Centrale de Lyon. The Paris region hosts France's highest concentration of grandes écoles – 55 specialised centres of higher-education outside public university structure prestigious public universities usually considered grands établissements Most of grandes écoles were relocated suburbs of Paris 1960s 1970s new campuses much larger than old campuses within crowded city of Paris though École Normale Supérieure has remained rue d'Ulm 5th arrondissement There high number of engineering schools led Paris Institute of Technology which comprises several colleges such École Polytechnique École des Mines AgroParisTech Télécom Paris Arts et Métiers École des Ponts et Chaussées There also many business schools including HEC INSEAD ESSEC ESCP Europe administrative school such ENA has been relocated Strasbourg political science school Sciences-Po still located Paris's 7th arrondissement most prestigious university of economics finance Paris-Dauphine located Paris's 16th Parisian school of journalism CELSA department of Paris-Sorbonne University located Neuilly-sur-Seine Paris also home several of France's most famous high-schools such Lycée Louis-le-Grand Lycée Henri-IV Lycée Janson de Sailly Lycée Condorcet National Institute of Sport Physical Education located 12th arrondissement both physical education institute high-level training centre elite athletesLibraries. The population of Paris had dropped 100,000 during Revolution but between 1799 1815 surged with 160,000 new residents reaching 660,000 Napoleon Bonaparte replaced elected government of Paris with prefect reporting only him He began erecting monuments military glory including Arc de Triomphe improved neglected infrastructure of city with new fountains Canal de l'Ourcq Père Lachaise Cemetery city's first metal bridge Pont des ArtsRichelieu reading room National Library of France, Magdalena Frackowiak Paris Fashion Week (Fall 2011) Judaism (0.8%)!